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Can J Psychiatry. 1999 Mar;44(2):175-9.

Confronting the confounders: the meaning, detection, and treatment of confounders in research.

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1
St Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario.

Abstract

When one variable is studied to try to explain another, the relationship between them may be biased by a third variable. The bias, known as "confounding," is common and must be minimized in research. This description is deceptively simple, though. Identifying confounding is complex but can be reduced to a stepped procedure. By way of examples, this article describes confounding and how to recognize it.

PMID:
10097839
DOI:
10.1177/070674379904400209
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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