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FEBS Lett. 1999 Feb 26;445(2-3):226-30.

Protection against peroxynitrite.

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Institut für Physiologische Chemie I, Heinrich-Heine-Universität Düsseldorf, Germany.


Peroxynitrite formed in vivo from superoxide and nitric oxide can mediate oxidation, nitration, or nitrosation reactions, leading to impaired function, toxicity, and alterations in signaling pathways. Protection against peroxynitrite is important for defense of normal tissue, especially during inflammation. Biological protection against peroxynitrite is organized in three categories: prevention, interception, and repair. Prevention is the control of the formation of peroxynitrite precursors, nitric oxide and superoxide. Interception is by direct reaction with peroxynitrite, leading to non-toxic products. In this regard, organoselenium compounds, metalloporphyrin derivatives, and peroxidases (e.g. glutathione peroxidase and myeloperoxidase) exhibit high second-order rate constants with peroxynitrite. Ebselen, like glutathione peroxidase, protects in a catalytic fashion utilizing glutathione as reductant in the peroxynitrite reductase reaction. Protection by metalloporphyrins can be maintained through glutathione or ascorbate. Repair processes remove damaged products and restitute intact biomolecules.

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