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Arch Biochem Biophys. 1999 Apr 1;364(1):19-29.

Inhibition of p56(lck) tyrosine kinase by isothiazolones.

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Abbott Laboratories, Immunological Disease Research, Abbott Park, Illinois, 60064-6119, USA.


Lck encodes a 56-kDa protein-tyrosine kinase, predominantly expressed in T lymphocytes, crucial for initiating T cell antigen receptor (TCR) signal transduction pathways, culminating in T cell cytokine gene expression and effector functions. As a consequence of a high-throughput screen for selective, novel inhibitors of p56(lck), an isothiazolone compound was identified, methyl-3-(N-isothiazolone)-2-thiophenecarboxylate(A-125800), which inhibits p56(lck) kinase activity with IC50 = 1-7 microM. Under similar assay conditions, the isothiazolone compound was equipotent in blocking the ZAP-70 tyrosine kinase activity but was 50 to 100 times less potent against the catalytic activities of p38 MAP kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase 2alpha. A-125800 blocked activation-dependent TCR tyrosine phosphorylation and intracellular calcium mobilization in Jurkat T cells (IC50 = 35 microM) and blocked T cell proliferation in response to alloantigen (IC50 = 14 microM) and CD3/CD28-induced IL-2 secretion (IC50 = 2.2 microM) in primary T cell cultures. Inhibition of p56(lck )by A-125800 was dose- and time-dependent and was irreversible. A substitution of methylene for the sulfur atom in the isothiazolone ring of the compound completely abrogated the ability to inhibit p56(lck) kinase activity and TCR-dependent signal transduction. Incubation with thiols such as beta-ME or DTT also blocked the ability of the isothiazolone to inhibit p56(lck) kinase activity. LC/MS analysis established the covalent modification of p56(lck) at cysteine residues 378, 465, and 476. Together these data support an inhibitory mechanism, whereby cysteine -SH groups within the p56(lck) catalytic domain react with the isothiazolone ring, leading to ring opening and disulfide bond formation with the p56(lck) enzyme. Loss of p56(lck) activity due to -SH oxidation has been suggested to play a role in the pathology of AIDS. Consequently, a similar mechanism of sulfhydryl oxidation leading to p56(lck) inhibition, described in this report, may occur in the intact T cell and may underlie certain T cell pathologies.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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