Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 1999 Jan;9(1-2):149-55.

CCK4-induced panic in healthy subjects I: psychological and cardiovascular effects.

Author information

Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec, Canada.


Sixteen healthy subjects participated in a crossover, double blind, and placebo-controlled study, designed to assess simultaneously the psychological and cardiovascular effects of cholecystokinin tetrapeptide (CCK4). Following an i.v. injection of 25 microg of CCK4, 44 percent of subjects experienced symptoms that fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a panic attack while no one panicked with placebo. CCK4 induced a significantly greater number and higher intensity of panic-like symptoms than placebo. A significant increase in state anxiety was observed in the period after CCK4 injection; this increase was significantly larger than the non-specific anxious reaction to placebo. CCK4 also affected cardiovascular signs. Both heart rate and mean blood pressure significantly increased after administration of CCK4. Again, these increases were significantly higher than those seen after placebo injection. We conclude that, in healthy subjects, CCK4 induces panic-like reaction characterized by a number of somatic, cognitive and emotional symptoms, which are accompanied by increases in heart rate and blood pressure.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center