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J Infect Dis. 1999 Mar;179 Suppl 2:S326-30.

How intracellular bacteria survive: surface modifications that promote resistance to host innate immune responses.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine, University of Washington, Seattle 98195, USA.

Abstract

Bacterial pathogens regulate the expression of virulence factors in response to environmental signals. In the case of salmonellae, many virulence factors are regulated via PhoP/PhoQ, a two-component signal transduction system that is repressed by magnesium and calcium in vitro. PhoP/PhoQ-activated genes promote intracellular survival within macrophages, whereas PhoP-repressed genes promote entrance into epithelial cells and macrophages by macropinocytosis and stimulate epithelial cell cytokine production. PhoP-activated genes include those that alter the cell envelope through structural alterations of lipopolysaccharide and lipid A, the bioactive component of lipopolysaccharide. PhoP-activated changes in the bacterial envelope likely promote intracellular survival by increasing resistance to host cationic antimicrobial peptides and decreasing host cell cytokine production.

PMID:
10081503
DOI:
10.1086/513850
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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