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Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Mar 16;256(2):299-306.

Epithelin/granulin growth factors: extracellular cofactors for HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat proteins.

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Department of Biological Sciences, George Washington University, 332 Lisner Hall, 2023 G Street N.W., Washington, DC 20052, USA.


Epithelin/granulin growth factor is synthesized as a 593 amino acid precursor protein that contains 7.5 imperfectly conserved repeats of approximately 57 amino acids. Processed epithelin/granulin peptides have been isolated from vertebrate/invertebrate species and are growth factors implicated in epithelial and haemic cell function. Here they are identified as Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Tat binding proteins using the yeast two-hybrid assay. Intracellularly in yeast, mutation of selected cysteines in an epithelin/granulin dimeric repeat caused loss of binding to Tat exon 1. In vitro binding of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat to epithelin/granulin dimeric and monomeric repeats was also observed by GST-glutathione bead "pulldown" assays. Because Tat is actively secreted from HIV-infected cells and has been shown to serve as a mitogenic factor for angiogenesis and for Kaposi-like cells, our observations suggest that epithelin/granulin growth factors may function as biologically important extracellular Tat co-factors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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