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J Biol Chem. 1999 Mar 19;274(12):7777-83.

Androgen-independent induction of prostate-specific antigen gene expression via cross-talk between the androgen receptor and protein kinase A signal transduction pathways.

Author information

1
Department of Cancer Endocrinology, British Columbia Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, V5Z 4E6 Canada. msadar@bccancer.bc.ca

Abstract

Transcription of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) gene escapes regulation by androgens in advanced prostate cancer. To determine the molecular mechanism(s) of androgen-independent regulation of the PSA gene, the possibility that the androgen receptor (AR) is activated in the absence of androgen by stimulation of protein kinase A (PKA) was investigated. Activation of PKA by forskolin resulted in elevated expression of the PSA gene in androgen-depleted LNCaP cells, an effect that was blocked by the antiandrogen, bicalutamide. Further evidence that induction of PSA gene expression was dependent on AR was obtained from experiments using PC3 cells devoid of AR. Neither PSA, PB, nor ARR3 androgen-responsive reporters could be induced by activation of PKA in the absence of transfected AR. In addition, when nuclear AR from forskolin-treated LNCaP cells was incubated with oligonucleotides encoding an androgen response element of the PSA promoter and examined by electromobility shift assay, an increase in AR-androgen response element complex formation was observed. Lastly, cotransfection of an expression vector for a chimeric protein encoding the amino-terminal domain of the human AR linked to Gal4 and a 5xGal4UAS reporter gene construct resulted in activation of the amino-terminal domain of the AR by stimulation of PKA activity. These results demonstrate androgen-independent induction of PSA gene expression in prostate cancer cells by an AR-dependent pathway.

PMID:
10075669
DOI:
10.1074/jbc.274.12.7777
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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