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Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Mar;93(3):437-41.

Pregnancy complicated by the antiphospholipid syndrome: outcomes with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy.

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Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, Kentucky 40292, USA.



To assess maternal and fetal outcomes in 15 patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (19 pregnancies) treated with intravenous immunoglobulin (IV Ig) during pregnancy.


Monthly IV Ig therapy was initiated in the first or early second trimester of all pregnancies except two. Additional therapy consisted of low-dose aspirin and subcutaneous heparin. Six patients also received steroid therapy. Serial anticardiolipin IgG levels were measured in eight pregnancies.


The live-birth rate was 84% (16 of 19 live births), and there were three pregnancy losses. There were no cases of fetal growth restriction (FGR). Preeclampsia and nonreassuring fetal status were each diagnosed in 25% of the pregnancies. Seventy-five percent of the infants were delivered at 34 weeks' gestation or later. Anticardiolipin IgG decreased throughout the course of therapy in seven pregnancies. Placental pathology was minimal.


Pregnancy complications appear to be minimized with the use of IV Ig. Definitive recommendations regarding the use of IV Ig in pregnancy await the conclusion of randomized trials. If the combination of IV Ig, aspirin, and heparin significantly decreases the incidences of FGR and prematurity, it may be a cost-effective primary therapy for pregnancies complicated by the antiphospholipid syndrome.

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