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Neuropsychology. 1999 Jan;13(1):76-89.

Influences on first-year recovery from traumatic brain injury in children.

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  • 1Department of Pediatrics, Case Western Reserve University, and Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-6038, USA.


This study examined recovery over the first year following traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children 6-12 years of age. Forty-two children with severe TBI and 52 with moderate TBI were compared to 58 children with orthopedic injuries. The children and their families were evaluated at a baseline assessment and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Findings documented cognitive, achievement, and behavioral sequelae of TBI, with only limited evidence for recovery over the first year postinjury. Outcomes were predicted by preinjury factors, TBI severity, and measures of the postinjury family environment. Some of the sequelae of severe TBI were more marked in the context of higher compared with lower levels of family burden or dysfunction. The findings confirm the need to consider environmental contributions to outcomes of TBI in children.

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