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Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1999 Jan;36(1):3-11.

Psychological issues in craniofacial care: state of the art.

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  • 1Department of Psychology, California State University, Sacramento, USA.


This article is an extensive review of the psychological literature on cleft lip and palate and other craniofacial anomalies. Issues of parental acceptance, social competence, self-concept, emotional adjustment, and cognitive functioning are examined. Cumulative research suggests that many children with craniofacial conditions develop in a typical manner and do not experience psychological problems. However, a significant number of children (30% to 40% in most studies) experience difficulties with internalizing and/or externalizing problems, learning disorders, and social competence. A multifactorial model for examining the domains that are related to both psychological risk and protection is recommended. The need for multicenter studies that are prospective and clinically relevant is emphasized.

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