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Eur J Immunol. 1999 Feb;29(2):700-12.

Differential immobilization and hierarchical involvement of chemokines in monocyte arrest and transmigration on inflamed endothelium in shear flow.

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Institut für Prophylaxe der Kreislaufkrankheiten, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany.


Monocyte extravasation into areas of inflammation involves sequential interactions of multiple adhesion molecules. However, differential contribution of chemokines produced by cytokine-stimulated endothelium and their receptors to leukocyte attachment and transmigration under flow conditions remains to be elucidated. The activation of endothelial cells with TNF-alpha up-regulated mRNA and protein expression of the CXC chemokine GRO-alpha and the CC chemokine monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, which act through the receptors CXCR2 and CCR2 expressed on monocytes, respectively. Whereas GRO-alpha was immobilized to endothelial cells via heparan sulfate proteoglycans, MCP-1 was secreted in a soluble form. Consequently, inhibition experiments with blocking peptide analogues and monoclonal antibodies revealed that GRO-alpha and its receptor CXCR2 but not MCP-1 and its receptors substantially contributed to conversion of rolling into firm, shear-resistant arrest of monocytes to TNF-alpha-stimulated endothelium in physiological flow. In contrast, MCP-1 and CCR2 but not GRO-alpha and CXCR2 mediated spreading, shape change and subsequent transendothelial migration, which was evident in flow but rarely in stasis and may thus require the establishment of a diffusible MCP-1 gradient. Differential patterns of presentation may determine a functional specialization and hierarchy of chemokines and their receptors in sequential steps of monocyte emigration on inflamed endothelium and shear flow.

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