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Eur J Clin Nutr. 1999 Jan;53(1):13-21.

Description and evaluation of an experimental model to examine changes in selection between high-protein, high-carbohydrate and high-fat foods in humans.

Author information

1
The Rowett Research Institute, Bucksburn, Aberdeen, UK.

Erratum in

  • Eur J Clin Nutr 1999 Mar;53(3):247.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To develop and test an experimental model designed to detect changes in selection between foods individually enriched in protein, carbohydrate and fat in human subjects.

DESIGN:

Randomised counterbalanced (Latin square) design.

SETTING:

The metabolic suite at the Rowett Research Institute's Human Nutrition Unit.

SUBJECTS:

16 normal-weight men (mean BMI = 23.5).

INTERVENTIONS:

Subjects were each studied 4 times in a 2-day protocol. On day 1 subjects received a fixed maintenance diet; on day 2 they received a mandatory intake as breakfast (08.30) plus a drink at 10.30. This comprised 80% of resting energy requirements as high-protein (HP), high-carbohydrate (HC) or high-fat (HF) foods (60% of energy in each case) or an equal mixture (M) of macronutrients, 33% by energy. All mandatory treatments contained the same energy content and density. From 12.30 onwards, subjects had ad libitum access to a counter-balanced selection of three groups of familiar foods (10 HP, 10 HC and 10 HF; 30 foods in total). Most energy in each food was derived from one macronutrient (approximately 60%), the remainder being equally split between the other two macronutrients.

RESULTS:

Subjects were significantly less hungry before lunch on the HP and M (33% protein) treatments (F3.44 = 7.35; P < 0.001). At lunch, they ate more energy after the HF treatment than after any of the other treatment (F1,38 = 9.00; P = 0.005). This was largely in the form of fat and protein, and to a lesser extent carbohydrate. Subsequent energy intake (EI) were lower on the HF treatment, largely through selection of less fat in the afternoon (F1.42 = 6.90; P=0.012). Daily EIs were similar across treatments.

CONCLUSION:

This design appears sensitive meal-to-meal to changes in both nutrient and EIs.

PMID:
10048795
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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