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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 1999 Jan;19(1):77-84.

Cytokine molecular adjuvants modulate immune responses induced by DNA vaccine constructs for HIV-1 and SIV.

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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 19104-6100, USA.


DNA or nucleic acid immunization has been shown to induce both antigen-specific cellular and humoral immune responses in vivo. Moreover, immune responses induced by DNA immunization can be enhanced and modulated by the use of molecular adjuvants. To further engineer the immune response in vivo, we investigated the induction and regulation of immune responses from the codelivery of Thl cytokines (interleukin-2 [IL-2] and IL-12), Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10), and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) genes along with a DNA vaccine construct encoding for simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) gag/pol proteins. We observed that coinjection with IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, and GM-CSF resulted in increased levels of antigen-specific antibodies. In addition, we found that coinjection with cytokine genes drove the immune responses toward a more Thl or Th2 phenotype. We also observed that coadministration of IL-2, IL-12, and GM-CSF genes resulted in a dramatic enhancement of Th proliferation responses. Moreover, coimmunization with IL-12 genes resulted in a dramatic enhancement of antigen-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses. These results support the potential utility of molecular adjuvants in DNA vaccine regimens.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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