Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below

Modern oral contraceptive use and benign liver tumors: the German Benign Liver Tumor Case-Control Study.

Author information

Center for Epidemiology and Health Research, Berlin, Germany.



To analyze the association between oral contraceptive use and the risk of benign liver tumors.


Two parallel case-control studies on hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia. Collaborative study of 15 German liver centers. Cases defined by histology and compared with population controls.


Fifty-one hepatocellular adenoma and 143 focal nodular hyperplasia cases (women) were recruited between 1990 and 1997, and compared to 240 population controls with a recent abdominal imaging test. The frequency age-matched odds ratio was 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.37-4.22) and 1.96 (95% CI, 0.85-4.57) for hepatocellular adenoma and focal nodular hyperplasia, respectively. For hepatocellular adenoma, there was neither a significantly increased risk with longer duration of oral contraceptive use, nor an association with time since first or last use. For focal nodular hyperplasia, however, a slightly increased odds ratio was found with longer duration of use and more recent last use.


There is little evidence for an increased risk for hepatocellular adenoma in women using modern oral contraceptives. If there is a risk not detected by the limited study size, hepatocellular adenoma is an extremely rare, and focal nodular hyperplasia a rare, adverse effect potentially associated with long-term oral contraceptive use and likely to be without public health importance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Loading ...
    Support Center