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Surg Neurol. 1999 Feb;51(2):117-24; discussion 124-8.

Optimal clip application and intraoperative angiography for intracranial aneurysms.

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Department of Neurological Surgery, Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.



The actual incidence of residual aneurysm after clipping is unknown. The natural history of residual aneurysm can be regrowth and hemorrhage. Intraoperative angiography offers a cost-effective, safe interdiction to the problem of residual aneurysm and parent vessel stenosis.


Forty consecutive patients harboring 54 aneurysms underwent 42 operative procedures to clip 52 aneurysms, during which 220 intraoperative angiographic runs were performed. Ninety-three percent of the procedures were performed on patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage. There were 4 giant (>2.5 cm, 4/52 = 8%, all anterior circulation), 21 large (1.0-2.5 cm, 21/52 = 40%, 16/ 21 = 76% anterior circulation, 6/21 = 28% posterior circulation), and 27 small (<1.0 cm, 27/52-52%, 22/27 = 81% anterior circulation, 5/27 = 18% posterior circulation) aneurysms. Intraoperative angiography led to clip adjustment in 18/52 = 34% of aneurysms (4/18 = 22% for parent artery stenosis, 8/18 = 44% for residual aneurysm and 6/18 = 33% for both). Of the 18 adjustments made, 16 = 88% were made on giant or large aneurysms and two were small (one was a complex anterior communicating and one was a vertebral junction aneurysm). Follow-up angiography was performed on 26/42 = 62% of operative cases. Postoperative angiography confirmed intraoperative angiography in all cases. Two complications occurred during 220 angiographic runs: one embolic stroke and one incident of equipment failure.


A grading scale was applied to test the relationship between anatomical site and size as they relate to the necessity for clip adjustment for complete aneurysm obliteration and/or parent artery compromise. Significance was related to site (basilar bifurcation, anterior communicating, middle cerebral bifurcation, and ophthalmic) and size (>1.0 cm), both as independent and codependent variables. An analysis of the cost-effectiveness of intraoperative angiography was demonstrated.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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