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Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 1999 Jan;29(1):141-59, xii.

Canine calcium phosphate uroliths. Etiopathogenesis, diagnosis, and management.

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Department of Small Animal Clinical Sciences, Michigan State University College of Veterinary Medicine, East Lansing, USA.


Uroliths composed predominantly of calcium phosphates have been infrequently identified in dogs. Factors incriminated in the etiopathogenesis of calcium phosphate urolithiasis include an alkaline urine pH, hypercalciuria, decreased urine concentrations of crystallization inhibitors, and increased urine concentrations of crystallization promoters. Disorders associated with calcium phosphate urolith formation in dogs include primary hyperparathyroidism, hyperadrenocorticism, and idiopathic hypercalciuria. Medical therapy of patients with recurring calcium phosphate uroliths should be directed at removing or minimizing factors contributing to urine supersaturation with calcium phosphate.

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