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Mol Cells. 2018 Jun;41(6):495-505. doi: 10.14348/molcells.2018.2154. Epub 2018 May 10.

Current Challenges of Streptococcus Infection and Effective Molecular, Cellular, and Environmental Control Methods in Aquaculture.

Mishra A1, Nam GH1,2, Gim JA1,2,3, Lee HE1,2, Jo A1,2, Kim HS1,2.

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Institute of Systems Biology, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.
Department of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, Korea.
The Genomics Institute, Life Sciences Department, UNIST, Ulsan 44919, Korea.


Several bacterial etiological agents of streptococcal disease have been associated with fish mortality and serious global economic loss. Bacterial identification based on biochemical, molecular, and phenotypic methods has been routinely used, along with assessment of morphological analyses. Among these, the molecular method of 16S rRNA sequencing is reliable, but presently, advanced genomics are preferred over other traditional identification methodologies. This review highlights the geographical variation in strains, their relatedness, as well as the complexity of diagnosis, pathogenesis, and various control methods of streptococcal infections. Several limitations, from diagnosis to control, have been reported, which make prevention and containment of streptococcal disease difficult. In this review, we discuss the challenges in diagnosis, pathogenesis, and control methods and suggest appropriate molecular (comparative genomics), cellular, and environmental solutions from among the best available possibilities.


Streptococcus; antimicrobial; aquaculture; geography; sequencing

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