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Circulation. 2015 Oct 6;132(14):1320-8. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797. Epub 2015 Sep 1.

How Does Cardiovascular Disease First Present in Women and Men? Incidence of 12 Cardiovascular Diseases in a Contemporary Cohort of 1,937,360 People.

Author information

1
From Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London), University College London, United Kingdom (J.G., M.P.-R., A.D.S., S.D., H.H.); Worldwide Clinical Trials, Nottingham, United Kingdom (E.R.); Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London), London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom (E.H., L.S.); and Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London) and Barts National Institute for Health Research Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom (A.T.). j.george@ucl.ac.uk.
2
From Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London), University College London, United Kingdom (J.G., M.P.-R., A.D.S., S.D., H.H.); Worldwide Clinical Trials, Nottingham, United Kingdom (E.R.); Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London), London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, United Kingdom (E.H., L.S.); and Farr Institute of Health Informatics Research (London) and Barts National Institute for Health Research Cardiovascular Biomedical Research Unit, Queen Mary University of London, United Kingdom (A.T.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Given the recent declines in heart attack and stroke incidence, it is unclear how women and men differ in first lifetime presentations of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). We compared the incidence of 12 cardiac, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular diseases in women and men at different ages.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

We studied 1 937 360 people, aged ≥ 30 years and free from diagnosed CVD at baseline (51% women), using linked electronic health records covering primary care, hospital admissions, acute coronary syndrome registry, and mortality (Cardiovascular Research Using LInked Bespoke Studies and Electronic Records [CALIBER] research platform). During 6 years median follow-up between 1997 and 2010, 114 859 people experienced an incident cardiovascular diagnosis, the majority (66%) of which were neither myocardial infarction nor ischemic stroke. Associations of male sex with initial diagnoses of CVD, however, varied from strong (age-adjusted hazard ratios, 3.6-5.0) for abdominal aortic aneurysm, myocardial infarction, and unheralded coronary death (particularly >60 years), through modest (hazard ratio, 1.5-2.0) for stable angina, ischemic stroke, peripheral arterial disease, heart failure, and cardiac arrest, to weak (hazard ratio <1.5) for transient ischemic attack, intracerebral hemorrhage, and unstable angina, and inverse (0.69) for subarachnoid hemorrhage (all P<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

The majority of initial presentations of CVD are neither myocardial infarction nor ischemic stroke, yet most primary prevention studies focus on these presentations. Sex has differing associations with different CVDs, with implications for risk prediction and management strategies.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:

URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01164371.

KEYWORDS:

aging; cardiovascular diseases; electronic health records; incidence; population; risk factors; sex

PMID:
26330414
PMCID:
PMC4590518
DOI:
10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.114.013797
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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