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J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2012 May-Jun;22(3):304-15. doi: 10.1038/jes.2012.13. Epub 2012 Feb 29.

Comparative international analysis of radiofrequency exposure surveys of mobile communication radio base stations.

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GSM Association, Public Policy, 7th Floor, 5 New Street Square, London EC4A 3BF, UK.


This paper presents analyses of data from surveys of radio base stations in 23 countries across five continents from the year 2000 onward and includes over 173,000 individual data points. The research compared the results of the national surveys, investigated chronological trends and compared exposures by technology. The key findings from this data are that irrespective of country, the year and cellular technology, exposures to radio signals at ground level were only a small fraction of the relevant human exposure standards. Importantly, there has been no significant increase in exposure levels since the widespread introduction of 3G mobile services, which should be reassuring for policy makers and negate the need for post-installation measurements at ground level for compliance purposes. There may be areas close to antennas where compliance levels could be exceeded. Future potential work includes extending the study to additional countries, development of cumulative exposure distributions and investigating the possibility of linking exposure measurements to population statistics to assess the distribution of exposure levels relative to population percentiles.

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