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N Engl J Med. 2010 Jun 24;362(25):2351-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0909383.

Fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine in Oman.

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  • 1Ministry of Health, Oman.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

We conducted a clinical trial of fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered to infants in Oman, in order to evaluate strategies for making the vaccine affordable for use in developing countries.

METHODS:

We compared fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (0.1 ml, representing one fifth of a full dose) given intradermally with the use of a needle-free jet injector device, with full doses of vaccine given intramuscularly, with respect to immunogenicity and reactogenicity. Infants were randomly assigned at birth to receive either a fractional dose or a full dose of inactivated poliovirus vaccine at 2, 4, and 6 months. We also administered a challenge dose of monovalent type 1 oral poliovirus vaccine at 7 months and collected stool samples before and 7 days after administration of the challenge dose.

RESULTS:

A total of 400 infants were randomized, of whom 373 (93.2%) fulfilled the study requirements. No significant baseline differences between the groups were detected. Thirty days after completion of the three-dose schedule, the rates of seroconversion to types 1, 2, and 3 poliovirus were 97.3%, 95.7%, and 97.9%, respectively, in the fractional-dose group, as compared with 100% seroconversion to all serotypes in the full-dose group (P=0.01 for the comparison with respect to type 2 poliovirus; results with respect to types 1 and 3 poliovirus were not significant). The median titers were significantly lower in the fractional-dose group than in the full-dose group (P<0.001 for all three poliovirus serotypes). At 7 months, 74.8% of the infants in the fractional-dose group and 63.1% of those in full-dose group excreted type 1 poliovirus (P=0.03). Between birth and 7 months, 42 hospitalizations were reported, all related to infectious causes, anemia, or falls, with no significant difference between vaccination groups.

CONCLUSIONS:

These data show that fractional doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine administered intradermally at 2, 4, and 6 months, as compared with full doses of inactivated poliovirus vaccine given intramuscularly on the same schedule, induce similar levels of seroconversion but significantly lower titers. (Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN17418767.)

PMID:
20573923
DOI:
10.1056/NEJMoa0909383
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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