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Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2009 Apr 1;73(5):1545-51. doi: 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.12.021.

Comparison of biological effectiveness of carbon-ion beams in Japan and Germany.

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Heavy-Ion Radiobiology Research Group, Research Center of Charged Particle Therapy, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba, Japan.



To compare the biological effectiveness of 290 MeV/amu carbon-ion beams in Chiba, Japan and in Darmstadt, Germany, given that different methods for beam delivery are used for each.


Murine small intestine and human salivary gland tumor (HSG) cells exponentially growing in vitro were irradiated with 6-cm width of spread-out Bragg peaks (SOBPs) adjusted to achieve nearly identical beam depth-dose profiles at the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba, and the SchwerIonen Synchrotron in Darmstadt. Cell kill efficiencies of carbon ions were measured by colony formation for HSG cells and jejunum crypts survival in mice. Cobalt-60 gamma rays were used as the reference radiation. Isoeffective doses at given survivals were used for relative biological effectiveness (RBE) calculations and interinstitutional comparisons.


Isoeffective D(10) doses (mean +/- standard deviation) of HSG cells ranged from 2.37 +/- 0.14 Gy to 3.47 +/- 0.19 Gy for Chiba and from 2.31 +/- 0.11 Gy to 3.66 +/- 0.17 Gy for Darmstadt. Isoeffective D(10) doses of gut crypts after single doses ranged from 8.25 +/- 0.17 Gy to 10.32 +/- 0.14 Gy for Chiba and from 8.27 +/- 0.10 Gy to 10.27 +/- 0.27 Gy for Darmstadt, whereas isoeffective D(30) doses after three fractionated doses were 9.89 +/- 0.17 Gy through 13.70 +/- 0.54 Gy and 10.14 +/- 0.20 Gy through 13.30 +/- 0.41 Gy for Chiba and Darmstadt, respectively. Overall difference of RBE between the two facilities was 0-5% or 3-7% for gut crypt survival or HSG cell kill, respectively.


The carbon-ion beams at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba, Japan and the Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung in Darmstadt, Germany are biologically identical after single and daily fractionated irradiation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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