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Study Description

The OPPERA project investigates effects of genetic, physiological, psychological and clinical factors on risk of developing painful temporomandibular disorder. The prospective cohort study evaluated factors at enrollment that predicted subsequent risk of developing first-onset temporomandibular disorder (TMD). Between May 2006 and November 2008, 3,263 study participants with no significant history of TMD were enrolled at four U.S. study sites. They were followed for a median period of 2.8 years, during which time 260 of them developed examiner-verified, first-onset TMD.

  • Study Weblinks:
  • Study Design:
    • Prospective Longitudinal Cohort
  • Study Type:
    • Prospective
    • Cohort
    • Longitudinal
  • Number of study subjects that have individual-level data available through Authorized Access:
Authorized Access
Publicly Available Data (Public ftp)

Note: Access to publicly available data is available on the public ftp site for study phs000761.v1.p1

Study Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Inclusion criteria were all eight of:

  1. Age 18-44 years
  2. Planning on living in the area for the next two years
  3. Fluent in written and spoken English
  4. Reported having never been diagnosed with TMD
  5. Reporting no significant history of orofacial pain (that is, no orofacial pain in the month before enrollment and, prior to that period, no more than four days of orofacial pain per month)
  6. Reported < 5 headaches/month in the three months before enrollment
  7. No reported use of a night guard or occlusal splin
  8. Examiner-verified absence of clincal TMD at enrollment

Exclusion criteria were any one of 13 conditions:

  1. Traumatic facial injury or surgery on the face or jaw within the six months preceding enrollment
  2. Currently receiving orthodontic treatment
  3. Pregnant or nursing
  4. Kidney failure or renal dialysis
  5. Heart disease or heart failure
  6. Chronic respiratory disease that is not controlled with medication
  7. Hypertension that is not controlled with medication
  8. Epilepsy or medication to control grand mal seizures
  9. Hyperthyroidism
  10. Diabetes that is not controlled with medication or diet
  11. Drug or alcohol abuse
  12. Psychiatric disorders or conditions that have required hospitalization
  13. Chemotherapy or radiation therapy
Molecular Data
TypeSourcePlatformNumber of Oligos/SNPsSNP Batch IdComment
Targeted Genotyping Algynomics Algynomics Pain Research Panel N/A N/A
Study History

The OPPERA project began in 2006 with enrollment of participants into two studies at four U.S. study sites: Baltimore, MD; Buffalo, NY; Chapel Hill, NC; and Gainesville, FL. In 2012, the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR) awarded funding to support the study for an additional five year period.

Selected publications
Diseases/Traits Related to Study (MeSH terms)
Links to Related Resources
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See research articles citing use of the data from this study
Study Attribution