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Study Description

Note: This substudy phs000301 PAGE Cardiovascular Health Study contains genotypes on selected SNP loci of the subset of the CHS cohort selected for the NHGRI's Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE) project. Summary level phenotypes for the Cardiovascular Health Study Cohort study participants can be viewed at the top-level study page phs000287 Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Cohort. Individual level phenotype data and molecular data for the Cardiovascular Health Study top-level study and substudies are available by requesting Authorized Access to the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) Cohort study phs000287.


The Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) is a study of risk factors for development and progression of CHD and stroke in people aged 65 years and older. The objectives of the Cardiovascular Health Study are to: 1) quantify associations of conventional and hypothesized risk factors with CHD and stroke; 2) assess the associations of non-invasive measures of subclinical disease with the incidence of CHD and stroke; 3) quantify the associations of risk factors with subclinical disease; 4) characterize the natural history of CHD and stroke, and identify factors associated with clinical course; and 5) describe the prevalence and distributions of risk factors, non-invasive measures of subclinical disease, and clinical CHD and stroke.


The study originated in 1988 from the recommendations of an NHLBI workshop on the management of CHD in the elderly. This is the most extensive study undertaken by the NHLBI to study CVD exclusively in an elderly population. Initially funded for six years, it was renewed for a second six year period in 1994 and recently was renewed for continued morbidity and mortality follow-up.


The 5,888 study participants were recruited from four U.S. communities and have undergone extensive clinic examinations for evaluation of markers of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The original cohort totaled 5,201 participants. A new cohort was recruited in 1992. The 687 participants in the new cohort are predominately African-American and were recruited at three of the four field centers.


The 2,962 women and 2,239 men were examined yearly from 1989 through 1999. The added minority cohort of 256 men and 431 women was examined from 1992 to 1999. Examination components have included medical history questionnaires, measurement of ankle-brachial index, abdominal and carotid ultrasound studies, echocardiograms, ambulatory electrocardiograms, cerebral magnetic resonance imaging, spirometry and retinal photographs over the past decade. The most extensive evaluations were at study entry (baseline) and again in 1992-1993 to assess change in subclinical disease measures. CHS has undertaken extensive follow-up for ascertainment of cardiovascular events including incident claudication, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, stroke and death.

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Study Inclusion/Exclusion Criteria

Participants aged 65 and older were recruited from random samples of Medicare eligibility lists in four communities: Sacramento County, California; Washington County, Maryland; Forsyth County, North Carolina; and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and from age-eligible participants in the same household. Potential participants were excluded if they were institutionalized, wheelchair bound in the home, or under active treatment for cancer.

Molecular Data
TypeSourcePlatformNumber of Oligos/SNPsSNP Batch IdComment
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo ABD TaqMan Y1 3 1049686
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo ABD TaqMan Y2 1 1056279
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo AOD TaqMan Y1 64 1049687
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo AOD TaqMan Y2 25 1056280
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo DME TaqMan Y1 2 1049688
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo DME TaqMan Y2 1 1056281
Targeted Region Genotyping Applied Biosystems TaqMan OpenArrays: CALiCo Sequenom Y2 165 1056282
Targeted Region Genotyping Sequenom MassARRAY N/A N/A
Targeted Region Genotyping Illumina iSelect Custom Panel 7100 N/A
Targeted Region Genotyping Illumina Cardio-Metabo_Chip_11395247_A 196723 1055361
Study History

The mean age at baseline was 72 years, 58% women, 16% Black, 31% had CVD. Participants were contacted twice per year, with phone follow-up alternating with clinic visits through 1999, and phone follow-up continuing through the present time. Clinic exams included medical and personal history, medication inventory, ECG, blood pressure, and assessment of physical and cognitive function, depression. Other components done less frequently included phlebotomy, spirometry, echocardiography, carotid ultrasound, cranial MR, and retinal exam, Cardiovascular events were adjudicated by a committee. The phone follow-up was done primarily for events ascertainment, but also included questions on independence of function.

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Diseases/Traits Related to Study (MeSH terms)
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