Document Objects

These Document Objects refer to pieces of the article (author/affiliation relationships, copyright information) and often include several XML elements in their tagging.

Index of objects



Abstracts
Articles may contain multiple abstracts. On all abstracts beyond the first, specify @abstract-type. See <abstract> for examples.
Translated Abstracts

Tag abstracts in any language other than the primary language of the article in <trans-abstract>. Specify the language in @xml:lang using two-letter, lowercase language codes as described in IETF RFC 5646. Values may be obtained from the IANA Language Subtag Registry: http://www.iana.org/assignments/language-subtag-registry.
Structured Abstracts

Abstracts with multiple sections, that include titles or labels, should be tagged using <sec> and <title>, or <label>. See the first example in <abstract>. Sections of an abstract should not be tagged within a style emphasis, such as <bold> or <italic>, separate from the <p>, using a colon.
Affiliations

2.3

Tag affiliation information in the <contrib> or <contrib-group> containing the relevant <contrib>. See the related element <contrib-group> for more details. See also Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.

3.0

Tag affiliation information in the <contrib> or <contrib-group> containing the relevant <contrib>. See the related element <contrib-group> for more details. See also Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.

1.0

Tag affiliation information in the <contrib> or <contrib-group> containing the relevant <contrib>. See the related element <contrib-group> for more details. See also Author/Affiliation Relationship for examples.
See Alternate Versions of a Single Object for tagging alternate versions of affiliations.
Alternate Versions of a Single Object

2.3

Where multiple formats (gif image, text, jpg image) of a single object (figure, table) are available, specify @alternate-form-of on all non-primary formats of the object. The value of @alternate-form-of must be the ID of the primary format.
Only use @alternate-form-of on <array>, <chem-struct>, <graphic>, <media>, <mml:math>, <preformat>, <table>, and <tex-math>.
The elements <inline-formula>, <disp-formula>, and <supplementary-material> may contain multiple versions of objects but must not be identified as alternate forms themselves.
<tex-math> and <graphic> are alternate forms of the primary object <mml:math> in this example.
<disp-formula id="Eq0001">
  <mml:math id="Eq0001-mml">
    <mml:mi>E</mml:mi>
    <mml:mo>=</mml:mo>
    <mml:mover>
      <mml:mrow>
        <mml:mi>m</mml:mi>
        <mml:mi>c</mml:mi>
      </mml:mrow>
      <mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
    </mml:mover>
  </mml:math>
  <tex-math alternate-form-of="Eq0001-mml">
  \documentclass[10pt]{article}
    \usepackage{wasysym}
    \usepackage[substack]{amsmath}
    \usepackage{amsfonts}
    \usepackage{amssymb}
    \usepackage{amsbsy}
    \usepackage[mathscr]{eucal}
    \usepackage{mathrsfs}
    \usepackage{pmc}
    \usepackage[Euler]{upgreek}
    \pagestyle{empty}
    \oddsidemargin -1.0in
    \begin{document}
      \[
      E = mc^{2}
      \]
    \end{document}
  </tex-math>
  <graphic alternate-form-of="Eq0001-mml" xlink:href="biotes-01-100-e001.tif"/>
</disp-formula>
			

3.0

Where multiple formats (gif image, text, jpg image) of a single object (figure, table) are available, tag all formats within the <alternatives> tag.
See the related element <alternatives> for more information.
A figure containing a movie and a still image from the movie:
<fig id="F1">
  <caption><label>Figure 1</label></caption>
  <alternatives>
    <media xlink:href="fig1.mov"/>
    <graphic xlink:href="fig1.jpg"/>
  </alternatives>
An equation provided as <mml:math>, <tex-math>, and an image:
<disp-formula id="FD1">
  <label>Equation 1</label>
  <alternatives>
    <mml:math id="Eq0001-mml">
      <mml:mi>E</mml:mi>
      <mml:mo>=</mml:mo>
      <mml:mover>
        <mml:mrow>
          <mml:mi>m</mml:mi>
          <mml:mi>c</mml:mi>
        </mml:mrow>
        <mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
    </mml:mover>
  </mml:math>
  <tex-math>
    \documentclass[10pt]{article}
    \usepackage{wasysym}
    \usepackage[substack]{amsmath}
    \usepackage{amsfonts}
    \usepackage{amssymb}
    \usepackage{amsbsy}
    \usepackage[mathscr]{eucal}
    \usepackage{mathrsfs}
    \usepackage{pmc}
    \usepackage[Euler]{upgreek}
    \pagestyle{empty}
    \oddsidemargin -1.0in
    \begin{document}
    \[
    E = mc^{2}
    \]
    \end{document}
  </tex-math>
  <graphic xlink:href="biotes-01-100-e001.tif"/>
  </alternatives>
</disp-formula>

1.0

Where multiple formats (gif image, text, jpg image) of a single object (figure, table) are available, tag all formats within the <alternatives> tag.
See the related element <alternatives> for more information.
A figure containing a movie and a still image from the movie:
<fig id="F1">
  <caption><label>Figure 1</label></caption>
  <alternatives>
    <media xlink:href="fig1.mov"/>
    <graphic xlink:href="fig1.jpg"/>
  </alternatives>
An equation provided as <mml:math>, <tex-math>, and an image:
<disp-formula id="FD1">
  <label>Equation 1</label>
  <alternatives>
    <mml:math id="Eq0001-mml">
      <mml:mi>E</mml:mi>
      <mml:mo>=</mml:mo>
      <mml:mover>
        <mml:mrow>
          <mml:mi>m</mml:mi>
          <mml:mi>c</mml:mi>
        </mml:mrow>
        <mml:mn>2</mml:mn>
    </mml:mover>
  </mml:math>
  <tex-math>
    \documentclass[10pt]{article}
    \usepackage{wasysym}
    \usepackage[substack]{amsmath}
    \usepackage{amsfonts}
    \usepackage{amssymb}
    \usepackage{amsbsy}
    \usepackage[mathscr]{eucal}
    \usepackage{mathrsfs}
    \usepackage{pmc}
    \usepackage[Euler]{upgreek}
    \pagestyle{empty}
    \oddsidemargin -1.0in
    \begin{document}
    \[
    E = mc^{2}
    \]
    \end{document}
  </tex-math>
  <graphic xlink:href="biotes-01-100-e001.tif"/>
  </alternatives>
</disp-formula>
Affiliation Alternatives

To capture a single affiliation in multiple languages or for different uses, use <aff-alternatives>. If the affiliations are being used for different purposes (print vs. online display), all <aff> elements must specify @specific-use. Likewise, if <aff-alternatives> is being used to capture the affiliation in multiple languages, all <aff> elements but one must include @xml:lang. At least one <aff> must be the same language as the <article>, which can either be explicitly tagged or inherited from the <article>.
In this example, the <article> does not include an explicit @xml:lang, so the default value "en", as declared in the DTD, applies.
<article>
...
    <aff-alternatives>
     <aff>Department of Emergency Health Services, Graduate School, 
      University of Maryland, Baltimore County, USA.</aff>
     <aff xml:lang="es">Departamento de Servicios de Salud de Emergencia, 
      Escuela de Posgrado, Universidad de Maryland, Condado de Baltimore, USA.</aff>
Citation Alternatives

Multiple versions of a single citation may be captured using <citation-alternatives>. Examples include the same citation tagged as an <element-citation> for indexing purposes and <mixed-citation> to preserve the display or a single citation tagged in multiple languages.
If the same child element is used (<element-citation>, <mixed-citation>), they must specify either @specific-use or @xml:lang to indicate why alternatives are included.
This must not be confused with a single <ref> that contains multiple citations, which is covered under References.
<citation-alternatives> with one <element-citation> and one <mixed-citation>. No @specific-use or @xml:lang required.
<citation-alternatives>
  <element-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
    <name><surname>Petitti</surname><given-names>DB</given-names></name>
    <name><surname>Crooks</surname><given-names>VC</given-names></name>
    <name><surname>Buckwalter</surname><given-names>JG</given-names></name>
    <name><surname>Chiu</surname><given-names>V</given-names></name>
    <article-title>Blood pressure levels before dementia</article-title>
    <source>Arch Neurol</source><year>2005</year><month>Jan</month>
    <volume>62</volume><issue>1</issue><fpage>112</fpage>
    <lpage>116</lpage>
  </element-citation>
  <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print">
    <name><surname>Petitti</surname><given-names>DB</given-names></name>, 
    <name><surname>Crooks</surname><given-names>VC</given-names></name>,
    <name><surname>Buckwalter</surname><given-names>JG</given-names></name>,
    <name><surname>Chiu</surname><given-names>V</given-names></name>.
    <article-title>Blood pressure levels before dementia</article-title>.
    <source>Arch Neurol</source>. <year>2005</year> <month>Jan</month>;
    <volume>62</volume>(<issue>1</issue>):
    <fpage>112</fpage>-<lpage>116</lpage>.
  </mixed-citation>
</citation-alternatives>
<citation-alternatives> with 2 <mixed-citation> elements, differentiated with @xml:lang.
<citation-alternatives>
  <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print" xml:lang="ja"> 
    <person-group person-group-type="author">
    <name name-style="eastern">
      <surname>柿崎</surname> 
      <given-names>一郎</given-names>
    </name></person-group>. <year>2000</year>. 
    『<source>タイ経済と鉄道1835 年~1935 年</source>』
    <publisher-name>日本経済評論社</publisher-name> 
  </mixed-citation>
  <mixed-citation publication-type="journal" publication-format="print" xml:lang="en">
    <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name name-style="western">
        <surname>Kakizaki</surname>, <given-names>Ichiro</given-names>
      </name></person-group>. <year>2000</year>. 
    <source>Thai Economy and Railway 1885-1935</source>. 
    <publisher-loc>Tokyo</publisher-loc>: <publisher-name>Nihon Keizai 
    Hyoronsha</publisher-name>  (in Japanese)</mixed-citation>
</citation-alternatives>
			
Author Name Alternatives

Names of both individual and collaborative authors may be tagged with alternatives to capture the name for different purposes or in different languages. Use <name-alternatives> for individual contributors and <collab-alternatives> for collaborative authors. Except in the case of Indexed Name, the distinction between alternate versions must be specified with either @specific-use or @xml:lang.
Article Categories or Subjects

2.3

PMC uses the subject groups tagged within <article-categories> to generate headings for the Tables of Contents (ToC). Articles may have more than one subject group within <article-categories>, but every article must have exactly one subject group with @subj-group-type="heading". PMC will use only the subject group with the specified type of “heading” to generate the ToC.
Do not confuse article subjects and article types. Article subjects may be any text that identifies the content of the article (Physical Sciences, Psychology) or the type of article (Editorial, Obituary). The required article-type attribute must specify the type of article using only the values specified by PMC (see <article>).
For articles that are printed without a subject, use the value “Article”.
See related elements: <article-categories>, <subject>, <subj-group>.
For example, a correction listed in the ToC as “Erratum” would have the article-type attribute of “correction” and the value “Erratum” tagged in the subject group.
<article article-type=”correction”>
  …
  <article-meta>
    …
    <article-categories>
      <subj-group subj-group-type=”heading”>
        <subject>Erratum</subject>
      </subj-group>
    </article-categories>
    …
  </article-meta>
  …
</article>

3.0

PMC uses the subject groups tagged within <article-categories> to generate headings for the Tables of Contents (ToC). Articles may have more than one subject group within <article-categories>, but every article must have exactly one subject group with @subj-group-type="heading". PMC will use only the subject group with the specified type of “heading” to generate the ToC.
Do not confuse article subjects and article types. Article subjects may be any text that identifies the content of the article (Physical Sciences, Psychology) or the type of article (Editorial, Obituary). The required article-type attribute must specify the type of article using only the values specified by PMC (see <article>).
For articles that are printed without a subject, use the value “Article”.
See related elements: <article-categories>, <subject>, <subj-group>.
For example, a correction listed in the ToC as “Erratum” would have the article-type attribute of “correction” and the value “Erratum” tagged in the subject group.
<article article-type=”correction”>
  …
  <article-meta>
    …
    <article-categories>
      <subj-group subj-group-type=”heading”>
        <subject>Erratum</subject>
      </subj-group>
    </article-categories>
    …
  </article-meta>
  …
</article>

1.0

PMC uses the subject groups tagged within <article-categories> to generate headings for the Tables of Contents (ToC). Articles may have more than one subject group within <article-categories>, but every article must have exactly one subject group with @subj-group-type="heading". PMC will use only the subject group with the specified type of “heading” to generate the ToC.
Do not tag <compound-subj> in @subj-group-type="heading".
Do not confuse article subjects and article types. Article subjects may be any text that identifies the content of the article (Physical Sciences, Psychology) or the type of article (Editorial, Obituary). The required article-type attribute must specify the type of article using only the values specified by PMC (see <article>).
For articles that are printed without a subject, use the value “Article”.
See related elements: <article-categories>, <subject>, <subj-group>.
For example, a correction listed in the ToC as “Erratum” would have the article-type attribute of “correction” and the value “Erratum” tagged in the subject group.
<article article-type=”correction”>
  …
  <article-meta>
    …
    <article-categories>
      <subj-group subj-group-type=”heading”>
        <subject>Erratum</subject>
      </subj-group>
    </article-categories>
    …
  </article-meta>
  …
</article>
Article Title

2.3

See related elements: <title-group>, <article-title>, <fn-group>, <subtitle> and <trans-title>
Book review titles can vary; see Book Reviews for tagging examples.
Do not tag emphasis that encompasses the entire title.
Subtitle

Tag only the content of the subtitle in this tag. Do not include formatting that encompasses the entire subtitle.
Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders

Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment is now feasible
<title-group>
  <article-title>Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders</article-title>
  <subtitle>Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment 
    is now feasible</subtitle>
</title-group>
			
Translated Article Title

Tag translated article titles in <trans-title>. Use @xml:lang.
<title-group>
  <title>Fellowship training in Canada</title>
  <trans-title xml:lang="fr">La formation au niveau du fellowship au Canada</trans-title
</title-group>
			
Footnotes on the Title

If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold of Endothelial Cells
Eunok Im, Annapurna Venkatakrishnan, and Andrius Kazlauskas

Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114
The online version of this article contains supplemental material at MBC Online.
<title-group>
  <article-title>Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold
    of Endothelial Cells<xref ref-type="fn" rid="fn1">‡<xref>
  </article-title>
</title-group>
...
<back>
...
<fn-group>
  <fn id="fn1">
    <p><label>‡</label>The online version of this article
	contains supplemental material at MBC Online.</p>
  </fn>
</fn-group>
			

3.0

See related elements: <title-group>, <article-title>, <fn-group>, <subtitle> and <trans-title>
Book review titles can vary; see Book Reviews for tagging examples.
Do not tag emphasis that encompasses the entire title.
Subtitle

Tag only the content of the subtitle in this tag. Do not include formatting that encompasses the entire subtitle.
Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders

Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment is now feasible
<title-group>
  <article-title>Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders</article-title>
  <subtitle>Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment 
    is now feasible</subtitle>
</title-group>
			
Translated Article Title

Tag translated article titles in <trans-title>. Use @xml:lang.
<title-group>
  <title>Fellowship training in Canada</title>
  <trans-title-group xml:lang="fr">
    <trans-title>La formation au niveau du fellowship au Canada</trans-title
  </trans-title-group>
</title-group>
			
Footnotes on the Title

If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold of Endothelial Cells
Eunok Im, Annapurna Venkatakrishnan, and Andrius Kazlauskas

Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114
The online version of this article contains supplemental material at MBC Online.
<title-group>
  <article-title>Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold
    of Endothelial Cells<xref ref-type="fn" rid="fn1">‡<xref>
  </article-title>
</title-group>
...
<back>
...
<fn-group>
  <fn id="fn1">
    <p><label>‡</label>The online version of this article
	contains supplemental material at MBC Online.</p>
  </fn>
</fn-group>
			

1.0

See related elements: <title-group>, <article-title>, <fn-group>, <subtitle> and <trans-title>
Book review titles can vary; see Book Reviews for tagging examples.
Do not tag emphasis that encompasses the entire title.
Subtitle

Tag only the content of the subtitle in this tag. Do not include formatting that encompasses the entire subtitle.
Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders

Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment is now feasible
<title-group>
  <article-title>Treatment of lysosomal storage disorders</article-title>
  <subtitle>Increased awareness and diagnosis are important as treatment 
    is now feasible</subtitle>
</title-group>
			
Translated Article Title

Tag translated article titles in <trans-title>. Use @xml:lang.
<title-group>
  <title>Fellowship training in Canada</title>
  <trans-title-group xml:lang="fr">
    <trans-title>La formation au niveau du fellowship au Canada</trans-title
  </trans-title-group>
</title-group>
			
Footnotes on the Title

If there is a footnote to the title, put the <xref> (with @ref-type="fn") in the <article-title> or <subtitle> element, and set the <fn> in the <fn-group> in <back>.
Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold of Endothelial Cells
Eunok Im, Annapurna Venkatakrishnan, and Andrius Kazlauskas

Schepens Eye Research Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114
The online version of this article contains supplemental material at MBC Online.
<title-group>
  <article-title>Cathepsin B Regulates the Intrinsic Angiogenic Threshold
    of Endothelial Cells<xref ref-type="fn" rid="fn1">‡<xref>
  </article-title>
</title-group>
...
<back>
...
<fn-group>
  <fn id="fn1">
    <p><label>‡</label>The online version of this article
	contains supplemental material at MBC Online.</p>
  </fn>
</fn-group>
			
Article Types

2.3

The @article-type is required on <article>. See <article> for details on tagging the attribute. Following is a listing of article types and things to keep in mind while tagging these types of articles.
Abstracts

The article itself is just an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.
Addendum

A published work that adds additional information or clarification to another work (compare with "correction", which corrects an error in previously published material).
Book Reviews

  • Use @article-type="book-review" on <article>.
  • In all cases, as much information about the book being reviewed should be tagged within <product> in <article-meta>. It is preferred that the order of citation information tagged within <product> follow the NLM Citation Style.
  • The author of the book review (the reviewer) should be tagged as the author of the article. The book authors will be included only in the <product> element.
If the title of the book being reviewed is used as the title of the article, tag the <article> and <article-title> as follows:
Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.
Edited by Jack W. Plunkett and Michelle LeGate Plunkett. Dallas, TX: Corporate Jobs Outlook, 1995. 700p. $125.00. ISBN: 0-9638268-1-6.
The health care system in the 1990s introduced many new terms, such as "managed health care," "point-of-service" (POS) plan, and ...
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
  <person-group person-group-type="editor">
    <name>
      <surname>Plunkett</surname>
      <given-names>Jack W.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Plunkett</surname>
      <given-names>Michelle LeGate</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</source>
  <year>1995</year>
  <publisher-name>Corporate Jobs Outlook</publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>Dallas, TX</publisher-loc>
  <page-count count="700"/>
  <comment>$125.00</comment>
  <isbn>0-9638268-1-6</isbn>
  </product>
			
Sometimes a book review has a title of "Book Review" followed by the name of the book reviewed. In this case, tag the title of the book reviewed as a <subtitle>.
Book Review: Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics
Carlson Elof Axel. Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2004, 332 pp., US$45.00 (hardback 0-87969-675-3).
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Book Review</article-title>
    <subtitle>Mendel's legacy:  the origin of classical genetics</subtitle>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Carlson</surname>
      <given-names>Elof Axel</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics.</source>
  <year>2004</year>
  <publisher-name>Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press</publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>Cold Spring Harbor</publisher-loc>
  <page-count count="332"/>
  <isbn>hardback 0-87969-675-3</isbn>
  <comment>US$45.00</comment>
  </product>
			
Sometimes the title of a book review is neither "Book Review" nor the title of the book being reviewed. Instead it is descriptive of the book or the review. The following example is for a review of JSTOR: A history.
Looking from the Past to the Future
Schonfeld RC (2003) JSTOR: A history. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 412 pp. ISBN (hardcover) 0-691-11531-1. US$29.95.
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Looking from the Past to the Future</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
  <person-group person-group-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Schonfeld</surname>
      <given-names>R C</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>JSTOR: A history.</source>
  <year>2003</year>
  <publisher-name>Princeton University Press<publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>Princeton, New Jersey</publisher-loc>
  <page-count count="412"/>
  <isbn>(hardcover) 0-691-11531-1</isbn>
  <comment>US$29.95</comment>
  </product>
			
Brief Reports

A short and/or rapid announcement of research results.
  • Use @article-type="brief-report" on <article>.
Case Reports

Case study, case report, or other description of a case.
  • Use @article-type="case-report" on <article>.
Commentaries

  • Use @article-type="article-commentary" on <article>.
  • Capture the commented-on article information in <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article".
Corrections/Errata

  • Use @article-type="correction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for corrections and errata must be for the correction itself.
  • Citation information about the corrected article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="corrected-article".
See Sample 5 for an example.
Data Papers

Data Papers primarily describe published data resources rather than report on research.
To tag a data paper in v2.3, you must use Archiving (Green) instead of Journal Publishing (Blue). You can do this by simply changing the DOCTYPE declaration to:
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD v2.3 20070202//EN" "archivearticle.dtd">
You do not need to change anything else in the data and this will not affect style compliance.
Discussions

A discussion (possibly invited) related to a specific article or issue. (The somewhat similar value "editorial" is reserved for a discussion written by an editor or other publication staff.)
Editorials

  • Use @article-type="editorial" on <article>.
  • If the editorial refers to a specific article (or articles), that information should be captured in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="commentary-article".
  • If the editorial contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
See Sample 3 for an example.
Expressions of Concern

An expression of concern gives the journal editors a place to voice their concerns about a previously published article without publishing a correction or retraction.
To tag an expression of concern in v2.3, you must use Archiving (Green) instead of Journal Publishing (Blue). You can do this by simply changing the DOCTYPE declaration to:
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD v2.3 20070202//EN" "archivearticle.dtd">
You do not need to change anything else in the data and this will not affect style compliance.
  • Use @article-type="expression-of-concern" on <article>.
  • The expression of concernt should refer to a specific article (or articles). Capture that information in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="object-of-concern".
In Brief/In This Issue

  • Use @article-type="in-brief" on <article>.
  • Links to articles discussed in these articles may be captured in <related-article> with @related-article-type="article-reference".
Introductions

An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue.
  • Use @article-type="introduction" on <article>.
Letters

  • Use @article-type="letter" on <article>.
  • Tag letters as individual articles, even if several letters start on the same page (see Continuous Makeup Articles).
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article" to capture articles the letters specifically reference.
  • Capture the letter's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the letter contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Meeting Reports/Abstracts

  • Use @article-type="meeting-report" on <article>.
  • The name of the conference should be captured in the <article-title>. The <article-meta> should contain article citation information, but should not include author information.
  • Tag each abstract in a separate <sub-article> with <title> of the presentation/paper abstract. The full citation of the abstract, including author/presenter should be captured in the <front-stub> of the <sub-article>.
  • The pagination tagged in the <front-stub>must reflect the actual pages on which the individual abstract appears. This will not always be the same as the parent <article> pagination.
The Association of Clinical Pathologists

102nd scientific meeting
The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, London 21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications follow.
Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell result
D. Parratt and D. O. Ho-Yen (Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee) An 18-year-old girl presented with typical clinical and cytological findings of infectious mononucleosis.
Age-related changes in human thymus
A. K. Singh and Jayanti Singh (St Thomas' Hospital, London) Biopsies of thymus were undertaken in 52 subjects during open-heart surgery. Their ages ranged from 5-75 years.
<article article-type="meeting-report">
  <front>
    <journal-meta>[specific tags omitted]</journal-meta>
    <article-meta>
      <article-categories><subj-group subj-group-type="heading">
        <subject>Meeting Abstracts</subject>
      </subj-group></article-categories>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>The Association of Clinical Pathologists</article-title>
        <subtitle>102nd scientific meeting</subtitle>
      </title-group>
      <pub-date pub-type="ppub"><month>4</month><year>1979</year></pub-date>
      <volume>32</volume>
      <issue>4</issue>
      <fpage>415</fpage>
      <lpage>418</lpage>
    </article-meta>
  </front>
  <body>
    <p>The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, 
      London21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications 
      follow.</p>
  </body>
  <sub-article article-type="abstract">
    <front-stub>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell
          result</article-title>
      </title-group>
      <contrib-group>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Parratt</surname>
            <given-names>D.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Ho-Yen</surname>
            <given-names>D. O.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <aff>Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and 
          Medical School, Dundee</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
    <sub-article article-type="abstract">
      <front-stub>
        <title-group>
          <article-title>Age-related changes in human thymus</article-title>
        </title-group>
        <contrib-group>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>A. K. </given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>Jayanti</given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <aff>St Thomas' Hospital, London</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
</article>
			
Methods Article

Methods articles primarily describe methods or procecudures used to perform an experiment or research rather than reporting the results of the research.
  • Use @article-type="methods-article" on <article>.
To tag a methods article in v2.3, you must use Archiving (Green) instead of Journal Publishing (Blue). You can do this by simply changing the DOCTYPE declaration to:
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD v2.3 20070202//EN" "archivearticle.dtd">
You do not need to change anything else in the data and this will not affect style compliance.
News

Obituaries

  • Use @article-type="obituary" on <article>.
  • Images used in obituaries should follow tagging rules outlined in <fig>.
Product Reviews

for hardware, software packages, or other media follow the same guidelines provided for Book Reviews, but the example below accounts for some unique features. See Sample 4 for an example.
Use @article-type="product-review" on <article>.
IMMEX Problem Solving Software. Ronald H. Stevens. University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Demo disk: $30.00. Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00. System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network, Microsoft Windows 3.1
<product product-type="software">
  <person-group person-group-type="inventor">
    <name>
      <surname>Stevens</surname>
      <given-names>Ronald H.</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>IMMEX Problem Solving Software</source>
  <publisher-name>University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine,
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology<publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024/publisher-loc>
  <comment>Demo disk $30.00.  Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00.
    System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network,
    Microsoft Windows 3.1</comment>
</product>
			
Oration

Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.
Other Types

Only use @article-type="other" on <article> when the article type does not match any of the types described in this section.
Replies

For a reply to a letter that is published with the letter, tag as <response> within the letter's <article>. See Response and Sub-Article.
For replies published as independent articles:
  • Use @article-type="reply" on <article>.
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="letter" to identify the letter to which the reply was written.
  • Capture the reply's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the reply contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Research Articles

Article reporting on primary research.
  • Use @article-type="research-article" on <article>.
Retractions

  • Use @article-type="retraction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for retractions and errata must be for the retraction itself.
  • Citation information about the retracted article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="retracted-article".
Review Articles

Systematic Review

A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question that synthesizes all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.
  • Use @article-type="systematic-review" on <article>.
To tag a systematic review in v2.3, you must use Archiving (Green) instead of Journal Publishing (Blue). You can do this by simply changing the DOCTYPE declaration to:
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Archiving and Interchange DTD v2.3 20070202//EN" "archivearticle.dtd">
You do not need to change anything else in the data and this will not affect style compliance.

3.0

The @article-type is required on <article>. See <article> for details on tagging the attribute. Following is a listing of article types and things to keep in mind while tagging these types of articles.
Abstracts

The article itself is just an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.
Addendum

A published work that adds additional information or clarification to another work (compare with "correction", which corrects an error in previously published material).
Book Reviews

  • Use @article-type="book-review" on <article>.
  • In all cases, as much information about the book being reviewed should be tagged within <product> in <article-meta>. It is preferred that the order of citation information tagged within <product> follow the NLM Citation Style.
  • The author of the book review (the reviewer) should be tagged as the author of the article. The book authors will be included only in the <product> element.
If the title of the book being reviewed is used as the title of the article, tag the <article> and <article-title> as follows:
Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.
Edited by Jack W. Plunkett and Michelle LeGate Plunkett. Dallas, TX: Corporate Jobs Outlook, 1995. 700p. $125.00. ISBN: 0-9638268-1-6.
The health care system in the 1990s introduced many new terms, such as "managed health care," "point-of-service" (POS) plan, and ...
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="editor">
      <name>
         <surname>Plunkett</surname>
         <given-names>Jack W.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
         <surname>Plunkett</surname>
         <given-names>Michelle LeGate</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</source>
   <year>1995</year>
   <publisher-name>Corporate Jobs Outlook</publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Dallas, TX</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="700"/>
   <price currencey="USD">$125.00</price>
   <isbn>0-9638268-1-6</isbn>
</product>
Sometimes a book review has a title of "Book Review" followed by the name of the book reviewed. In this case, tag the title of the book reviewed as a <subtitle>.
Book Review: Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics
Carlson Elof Axel. Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2004, 332 pp., US$45.00 (hardback 0-87969-675-3).
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Book Review</article-title>
    <subtitle>Mendel's legacy:  the origin of classical genetics</subtitle>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
         <surname>Carlson</surname>
         <given-names>Elof Axel</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics.</source>
   <year>2004</year>
   <publisher-name>Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press</publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Cold Spring Harbor</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="332"/>
   <isbn>hardback 0-87969-675-3</isbn>
   <price currency="USD"t>US$45.00</price>
</product>
Sometimes the title of a book review is neither "Book Review" nor the title of the book being reviewed. Instead it is descriptive of the book or the review. The following example is for a review of JSTOR: A history.
Looking from the Past to the Future
Schonfeld RC (2003) JSTOR: A history. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 412 pp. ISBN (hardcover) 0-691-11531-1. US$29.95.
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Looking from the Past to the Future</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
         <surname>Schonfeld</surname>
         <given-names>R C</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>JSTOR: A history.</source>
   <year>2003</year>
   <publisher-name>Princeton University Press<publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Princeton, New Jersey</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="412"/>
   <isbn>(hardcover) 0-691-11531-1</isbn>
   <price currency="USD">US$29.95</price>
</product>
Brief Reports

A short and/or rapid announcement of research results.
  • Use @article-type="brief-report" on <article>.
Case Reports

Case study, case report, or other description of a case.
  • Use @article-type="case-report" on <article>.
Commentaries

  • Use @article-type="article-commentary" on <article>.
  • Capture the commented-on article information in <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article".
Corrections/Errata

  • Use @article-type="correction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for corrections and errata must be for the correction itself.
  • Citation information about the corrected article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="corrected-article".
See Sample 5 for an example.
Data Papers

Data Papers primarily describe published data resources rather than report on research.
Discussions

A discussion (possibly invited) related to a specific article or issue. (The somewhat similar value "editorial" is reserved for a discussion written by an editor or other publication staff.)
Editorials

  • Use @article-type="editorial" on <article>.
  • If the editorial refers to a specific article (or articles), that information should be captured in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="commentary-article".
  • If the editorial contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
See Sample 3 for an example.
Expressions of Concern

An expression of concern gives the journal editors a place to voice their concerns about a previously published article without publishing a correction or retraction.
  • Use @article-type="expression-of-concern" on <article>.
  • The expression of concernt should refer to a specific article (or articles). Capture that information in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="object-of-concern".
In Brief/In This Issue

  • Use @article-type="in-brief" on <article>.
  • Links to articles discussed in these articles may be captured in <related-article> with @related-article-type="article-reference".
Introductions

An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue.
  • Use @article-type="introduction" on <article>.
Letters

  • Use @article-type="letter" on <article>.
  • Tag letters as individual articles, even if several letters start on the same page (see Continuous Makeup Articles).
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article" to capture articles the letters specifically reference.
  • Capture the letter's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the letter contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Meeting Reports/Abstracts

  • Use @article-type="meeting-report" on <article>.
  • The name of the conference should be captured in the <article-title>. The <article-meta> should contain article citation information, but should not include author information.
  • Tag each abstract in a separate <sub-article> with <title> of the presentation/paper abstract. The full citation of the abstract, including author/presenter should be captured in the <front-stub> of the <sub-article>.
  • The pagination tagged in the <front-stub>must reflect the actual pages on which the individual abstract appears. This will not always be the same as the parent <article> pagination.
The Association of Clinical Pathologists

102nd scientific meeting
The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, London 21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications follow.
Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell result
D. Parratt and D. O. Ho-Yen (Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee) An 18-year-old girl presented with typical clinical and cytological findings of infectious mononucleosis.
Age-related changes in human thymus
A. K. Singh and Jayanti Singh (St Thomas' Hospital, London) Biopsies of thymus were undertaken in 52 subjects during open-heart surgery. Their ages ranged from 5-75 years.
<article article-type="meeting-report">
  <front>
    <journal-meta>[specific tags omitted]</journal-meta>
    <article-meta>
      <article-categories><subj-group subj-group-type="heading">
        <subject>Meeting Abstracts</subject>
      </subj-group></article-categories>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>The Association of Clinical Pathologists</article-title>
        <subtitle>102nd scientific meeting</subtitle>
      </title-group>
      <pub-date pub-type="ppub"><month>4</month><year>1979</year></pub-date>
      <volume>32</volume>
      <issue>4</issue>
      <fpage>415</fpage>
      <lpage>418</lpage>
    </article-meta>
  </front>
  <body>
    <p>The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, 
      London21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications 
      follow.</p>
  </body>
  <sub-article article-type="abstract">
    <front-stub>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell
          result</article-title>
      </title-group>
      <contrib-group>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Parratt</surname>
            <given-names>D.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Ho-Yen</surname>
            <given-names>D. O.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <aff>Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and 
          Medical School, Dundee</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
    <sub-article article-type="abstract">
      <front-stub>
        <title-group>
          <article-title>Age-related changes in human thymus</article-title>
        </title-group>
        <contrib-group>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>A. K. </given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>Jayanti</given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <aff>St Thomas' Hospital, London</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
</article>
			
Methods Article

Methods articles primarily describe methods or procecudures used to perform an experiment or research rather than reporting the results of the research.
  • Use @article-type="methods-article" on <article>.
News

Obituaries

  • Use @article-type="obituary" on <article>.
  • Images used in obituaries should follow tagging rules outlined in <fig>.
Product Reviews

for hardware, software packages, or other media follow the same guidelines provided for Book Reviews, but the example below accounts for some unique features. See Sample 4 for an example.
Use @article-type="product-review" on <article>.
IMMEX Problem Solving Software. Ronald H. Stevens. University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Demo disk: $30.00. Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00. System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network, Microsoft Windows 3.1
<product product-type="software">
  <person-group person-group-type="inventor">
    <name>
      <surname>Stevens</surname>
      <given-names>Ronald H.</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>IMMEX Problem Solving Software</source>
  <publisher-name>University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine,
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology<publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024/publisher-loc>
  <comment>Demo disk $30.00.  Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00.
    System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network,
    Microsoft Windows 3.1</comment>
</product>
			
Oration

Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.
Other Types

Only use @article-type="other" on <article> when the article type does not match any of the types described in this section.
Replies

For a reply to a letter that is published with the letter, tag as <response> within the letter's <article>. See Response and Sub-Article.
For replies published as independent articles:
  • Use @article-type="reply" on <article>.
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="letter" to identify the letter to which the reply was written.
  • Capture the reply's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the reply contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Research Articles

Article reporting on primary research.
  • Use @article-type="research-article" on <article>.
Retractions

  • Use @article-type="retraction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for retractions and errata must be for the retraction itself.
  • Citation information about the retracted article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="retracted-article".
Review Articles

Systematic Review

A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question that synthesizes all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.
  • Use @article-type="systematic-review" on <article>.

1.0

The @article-type is required on <article>. See <article> for details on tagging the attribute. Following is a listing of article types and things to keep in mind while tagging these types of articles.
Abstracts

The article itself is just an abstract (of a paper or presentation) that usually has been presented or published separately.
Addendum

A published work that adds additional information or clarification to another work (compare with "correction", which corrects an error in previously published material).
Book Reviews

  • Use @article-type="book-review" on <article>.
  • In all cases, as much information about the book being reviewed should be tagged within <product> in <article-meta>. It is preferred that the order of citation information tagged within <product> follow the NLM Citation Style.
  • The author of the book review (the reviewer) should be tagged as the author of the article. The book authors will be included only in the <product> element.
If the title of the book being reviewed is used as the title of the article, tag the <article> and <article-title> as follows:
Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.
Edited by Jack W. Plunkett and Michelle LeGate Plunkett. Dallas, TX: Corporate Jobs Outlook, 1995. 700p. $125.00. ISBN: 0-9638268-1-6.
The health care system in the 1990s introduced many new terms, such as "managed health care," "point-of-service" (POS) plan, and ...
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="editor">
      <name>
         <surname>Plunkett</surname>
         <given-names>Jack W.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
         <surname>Plunkett</surname>
         <given-names>Michelle LeGate</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>Plunkett's Health Care Industry Almanac.</source>
   <year>1995</year>
   <publisher-name>Corporate Jobs Outlook</publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Dallas, TX</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="700"/>
   <price currencey="USD">$125.00</price>
   <isbn>0-9638268-1-6</isbn>
</product>
Sometimes a book review has a title of "Book Review" followed by the name of the book reviewed. In this case, tag the title of the book reviewed as a <subtitle>.
Book Review: Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics
Carlson Elof Axel. Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics. Cold Spring Harbor: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press. 2004, 332 pp., US$45.00 (hardback 0-87969-675-3).
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Book Review</article-title>
    <subtitle>Mendel's legacy:  the origin of classical genetics</subtitle>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
         <surname>Carlson</surname>
         <given-names>Elof Axel</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>Mendel's legacy: the origin of classical genetics.</source>
   <year>2004</year>
   <publisher-name>Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press</publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Cold Spring Harbor</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="332"/>
   <isbn>hardback 0-87969-675-3</isbn>
   <price currency="USD"t>US$45.00</price>
</product>
Sometimes the title of a book review is neither "Book Review" nor the title of the book being reviewed. Instead it is descriptive of the book or the review. The following example is for a review of JSTOR: A history.
Looking from the Past to the Future
Schonfeld RC (2003) JSTOR: A history. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. 412 pp. ISBN (hardcover) 0-691-11531-1. US$29.95.
<article article-type="book-review">
  <title-group>
    <article-title>Looking from the Past to the Future</article-title>
  </title-group>
			
The book (product) information should be tagged in <product>.
<product product-type="book">
   <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
         <surname>Schonfeld</surname>
         <given-names>R C</given-names>
      </name>
   </person-group>
   <source>JSTOR: A history.</source>
   <year>2003</year>
   <publisher-name>Princeton University Press<publisher-name>
   <publisher-loc>Princeton, New Jersey</publisher-loc>
   <page-count count="412"/>
   <isbn>(hardcover) 0-691-11531-1</isbn>
   <price currency="USD">US$29.95</price>
</product>
Brief Reports

A short and/or rapid announcement of research results.
  • Use @article-type="brief-report" on <article>.
Case Reports

Case study, case report, or other description of a case.
  • Use @article-type="case-report" on <article>.
Commentaries

  • Use @article-type="article-commentary" on <article>.
  • Capture the commented-on article information in <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article".
Corrections/Errata

  • Use @article-type="correction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for corrections and errata must be for the correction itself.
  • Citation information about the corrected article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="corrected-article".
See Sample 5 for an example.
Data Papers

Data Papers primarily describe published data resources rather than report on research.
Discussions

A discussion (possibly invited) related to a specific article or issue. (The somewhat similar value "editorial" is reserved for a discussion written by an editor or other publication staff.)
Editorials

  • Use @article-type="editorial" on <article>.
  • If the editorial refers to a specific article (or articles), that information should be captured in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="commentary-article".
  • If the editorial contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
See Sample 3 for an example.
Expressions of Concern

An expression of concern gives the journal editors a place to voice their concerns about a previously published article without publishing a correction or retraction.
  • Use @article-type="expression-of-concern" on <article>.
  • The expression of concernt should refer to a specific article (or articles). Capture that information in a <related-article> with @related-article-type="object-of-concern".
In Brief/In This Issue

  • Use @article-type="in-brief" on <article>.
  • Links to articles discussed in these articles may be captured in <related-article> with @related-article-type="article-reference".
Introductions

An introduction to a publication, or to a series of articles within a publication, etc., typically for a special section or issue.
  • Use @article-type="introduction" on <article>.
Letters

  • Use @article-type="letter" on <article>.
  • Tag letters as individual articles, even if several letters start on the same page (see Continuous Makeup Articles).
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="commentary-article" to capture articles the letters specifically reference.
  • Capture the letter's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the letter contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Meeting Reports/Abstracts

  • Use @article-type="meeting-report" on <article>.
  • The name of the conference should be captured in the <article-title>. The <article-meta> should contain article citation information, but should not include author information.
  • Tag each abstract in a separate <sub-article> with <title> of the presentation/paper abstract. The full citation of the abstract, including author/presenter should be captured in the <front-stub> of the <sub-article>.
  • The pagination tagged in the <front-stub>must reflect the actual pages on which the individual abstract appears. This will not always be the same as the parent <article> pagination.
The Association of Clinical Pathologists

102nd scientific meeting
The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, London 21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications follow.
Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell result
D. Parratt and D. O. Ho-Yen (Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee) An 18-year-old girl presented with typical clinical and cytological findings of infectious mononucleosis.
Age-related changes in human thymus
A. K. Singh and Jayanti Singh (St Thomas' Hospital, London) Biopsies of thymus were undertaken in 52 subjects during open-heart surgery. Their ages ranged from 5-75 years.
<article article-type="meeting-report">
  <front>
    <journal-meta>[specific tags omitted]</journal-meta>
    <article-meta>
      <article-categories><subj-group subj-group-type="heading">
        <subject>Meeting Abstracts</subject>
      </subj-group></article-categories>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>The Association of Clinical Pathologists</article-title>
        <subtitle>102nd scientific meeting</subtitle>
      </title-group>
      <pub-date pub-type="ppub"><month>4</month><year>1979</year></pub-date>
      <volume>32</volume>
      <issue>4</issue>
      <fpage>415</fpage>
      <lpage>418</lpage>
    </article-meta>
  </front>
  <body>
    <p>The 102nd scientific meeting was held at the Royal Society of Medicine, 
      London21-22 September 1978. Abstracts of the scientific communications 
      follow.</p>
  </body>
  <sub-article article-type="abstract">
    <front-stub>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>Infectious mononucleosis with an unusual Paul-Bunnell
          result</article-title>
      </title-group>
      <contrib-group>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Parratt</surname>
            <given-names>D.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <contrib contrib-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Ho-Yen</surname>
            <given-names>D. O.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <aff>Departments of Bacteriology and Haematology, Ninewells Hospital and 
          Medical School, Dundee</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
    <sub-article article-type="abstract">
      <front-stub>
        <title-group>
          <article-title>Age-related changes in human thymus</article-title>
        </title-group>
        <contrib-group>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>A. K. </given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <contrib contrib-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Singh</surname>
              <given-names>Jayanti</given-names>
            </name>
          </contrib>
          <aff>St Thomas' Hospital, London</aff>
        </contrib-group>
      </front-stub>
      <body>[tagged text omitted]</body>
    </sub-article>
</article>
			
Methods Article

Methods articles primarily describe methods or procecudures used to perform an experiment or research rather than reporting the results of the research.
  • Use @article-type="methods-article" on <article>.
News

Obituaries

  • Use @article-type="obituary" on <article>.
  • Images used in obituaries should follow tagging rules outlined in <fig>.
Product Reviews

for hardware, software packages, or other media follow the same guidelines provided for Book Reviews, but the example below accounts for some unique features. See Sample 4 for an example.
Use @article-type="product-review" on <article>.
IMMEX Problem Solving Software. Ronald H. Stevens. University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, 43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024. Demo disk: $30.00. Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00. System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network, Microsoft Windows 3.1
<product product-type="software">
  <person-group person-group-type="inventor">
    <name>
      <surname>Stevens</surname>
      <given-names>Ronald H.</given-names>
    </name>
  </person-group>
  <source>IMMEX Problem Solving Software</source>
  <publisher-name>University of California, Los Angeles, School of Medicine,
    Department of Microbiology and Immunology<publisher-name>
  <publisher-loc>43-319 CHS, Los Angeles, CA 90024/publisher-loc>
  <comment>Demo disk $30.00.  Author/delivery and analysis modules, $450.00.
    System requirements: IBM-compatible running on a local area network,
    Microsoft Windows 3.1</comment>
</product>
			
Oration

Reprint of a speech or oral presentation.
Other Types

Only use @article-type="other" on <article> when the article type does not match any of the types described in this section.
Replies

For a reply to a letter that is published with the letter, tag as <response> within the letter's <article>. See Response and Sub-Article.
For replies published as independent articles:
  • Use @article-type="reply" on <article>.
  • Use <related-article> @related-article-type="letter" to identify the letter to which the reply was written.
  • Capture the reply's author information following <contrib-group> guidelines.
  • If the reply contains a signature block, see Signatures for tagging guidelines.
Research Articles

Article reporting on primary research.
  • Use @article-type="research-article" on <article>.
Retractions

  • Use @article-type="retraction" on <article>.
  • Front matter for retractions and errata must be for the retraction itself.
  • Citation information about the retracted article should be captured within the body of the article and include a <related-article> with @related-article-type="retracted-article".
Review Articles

Systematic Review

A systematic review is a literature review focused on a research question that synthesizes all high quality research evidence relevant to that question.
  • Use @article-type="systematic-review" on <article>.
Author Names
Tag each author name and his associated information in <contrib>.
Set the following attributes on <contrib> for these situations.
Situationattribute
corresponding author @corresp="yes"
author is deceased @deceased="yes"
author contributed equally @equal-contrib="yes"
If more information than can be represented with a simple yes/no is supplied for one of these situations, tag this information in <fn> in <author-notes>. If this is the case, the attribute is not needed.
For example, if the author is indicated just as "Corresponding Author", use the @corresp="yes"

Indexed Name

2.3

For authors with multi-part names, you may explicitly tag that name as it is to be indexed as well as tagging the name for display.
In <contrib>, include a second <name> with @content-type="index". The <surname> must include the last name to be indexed and the <given-names> must include the initials to be indexed.
M Isabel Canut Jordana
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <name>
    <surname>Canut Jordana</surname>
    <given-names>M Isabel</given-names>
  </name>
  <name content-type="index">
    <surname>Canut</surname>
    <given-names>MI</given-names>
  </name>
</contrib>
  

3.0

For authors with multi-part names, you may explicitly tag that name as it is to be indexed as well as tagging the name for display.
In <contrib>, include a second <name> with @content-type="index". The <surname> must include the last name to be indexed and the <given-names> must include the initials to be indexed.
M Isabel Canut Jordana
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <name>
    <surname>Canut Jordana</surname>
    <given-names>M Isabel</given-names>
  </name>
  <name content-type="index">
    <surname>Canut</surname>
    <given-names>MI</given-names>
  </name>
</contrib>
  

1.0

For authors with multi-part names, you may explicitly tag that name as it is to be indexed as well as tagging the name for display.
In <contrib>, include <name-alternatives> with two separate <name> elements. Indicate the name to be indexed with @content-type="index". The <surname> must include the last name to be indexed and the <given-names> must include the name to be indexed in the element and the initials to be indexed in @initials.
M Isabel Canut Jordana
<contrib contrib-type="author">
   <name-alternatives>
      <name>
         <surname>Canut Jordana</surname>
         <given-names>M Isabel</given-names>
      </name>
      <name content-type="index">
         <surname initials="C">Canut</surname>
         <given-names initials="MI">M Isabel</given-names>
      </name>
   <name-alternatives>
</contrib>
Author Notes
This includes all information related to authors that cannot be expressed with the <contrib> attributes (@corresp, @equal-contrib, etc).
Information that applies to the entire article must be tagged in <fn-group> in <back>, not in <author-notes>.
See related elements <author-notes>.
Author/Affiliation Relationship
All author/affiliations should be tagged in the same style within a given article.
A. If there is an address or affiliation supplied for each <contrib>, include the <aff> in the tagging for the <contrib>.
Lorraine Tanabe§
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, NIH, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA
Lynne H. Thom
Consolidated Safety Services, 10335 Democracy Lane, Suite 202, Fairfax, VA, USA
§Corresponding author
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" corresp="yes">
    <name>
      <surname>Tanabe</surname>
      <given-names>Lorraine</given-names>
    </name>
    <aff>National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of
	 Medicine, NIH, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA</aff>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Thom</surname>
      <given-names>Lynne H.</given-names>
    </name>
    <aff>Consolidated Safety Services, 10335 Democracy Lane, Suite 202,
	 Fairfax, VA, USA</aff>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>
B. If there is one affiliation supplied for all of the contributors, include the <aff> in the tagging for the <contrib-group>.
Authors: Gabor T. Marth1, Eva Czabarka, Janos Murvai, & Stephen T. Sherry.
Affiliations: National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894
1Present affiliation: Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467.
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Marth</surname>
      <given-names>Gabor T.</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="FN1">1</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Czabarka</surname>
      <given-names>Eva</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Murvai</surname>
      <given-names>Janos</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Sherry</surname>
      <given-names>Stephen T.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <aff>National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of
  Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894</aff>
</contrib-group>
C. If there are multiple <contrib-group> elements, each with a different <aff>, include the corresponding <aff> in the tagging for the <contrib-group>.
Lorraine Tanabe§ and Natalie Xie,
National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, NIH, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA
Lynne H. Thom and Wayne Matten
Consolidated Safety Services, 10335 Democracy Lane, Suite 202, Fairfax, VA, USA
Corresponding author
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" corresp="yes">
    <name>
      <surname>Tanabe</surname>
      <given-names>Lorraine</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Xie</surname>
      <given-names>Natalie</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <aff>National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of
  Medicine, NIH, 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD, USA</aff>
</contrib-group>
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Thom</surname>
      <given-names>Lynne H.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Matten</surname>
      <given-names>Wayne</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <aff>Consolidated Safety Services, 10335 Democracy Lane, Suite 202,
  Fairfax, VA, USA</aff>
</contrib-group>
D. If there are complex relationships between authors and contributors, and the relationships are defined by symbols (including letters/numbers) - as below, set the <xref> element with @ref-type="aff" to refer to the corresponding @id on <aff>. The <xref> should be contained within the <contrib>. If there are multiple <xref> elements in the same <contrib>, do not include punctuation between them.
All of the affiliations should follow the single <contrib-group> in this case.
Olga V. Moroz1, Maria Harkiolaki1,2, Michael Y. Galperin3, Alexei A. Vagin1, Dolores González-Pacanowska4 and Keith S. Wilson1
1Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW, UK;
2Cancer Research UK Cell Signalling Group and Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK;
3National Center for Biotechnology Information, National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894, USA;
4Instituto de Parasitología y Biomedicina "López-Neyra", C/Ventanilla, 11. 18001 Granada, Spain

<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Moroz</surname>
      <given-names>Olga V.</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A1">1</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Harkiolaki</surname>
      <given-names>Maria</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A1">1</xref>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A2">2</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Galperin</surname>
      <given-names>Michael</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A3">3</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Vagin</surname>
      <given-names>Alexei A.</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A1">1</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Gonz&#x00E1;lez-Pacanowska</surname>
      <given-names>Delores</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A4">4</xref>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Wilson</surname>
      <given-names>Keith S.</given-names>
    </name>
    <xref ref-type="aff" rid="A1">1</xref>
    <xref ref-type="author-notes" rid="FN1">*</xref>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>
<aff id="A1">
  <label>1</label>Structural Biology Laboratory, Department of Chemistry,
  University of York, Heslington, York YO10 5YW, UK;
</aff>
<aff id="A2">
  <label>2</label>Cancer Research UK Cell Signalling Group and Weatherall
  Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford, OX3 9DS, UK;
</aff>
<aff id="A3">
  <label>3</label>National Center for Biotechnology Information, National
  Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20894,
  USA;
</aff>
<aff id="A4">
  <label>4</label>Instituto de Parasitolog&#x00ED;a y Biomedicina
  "L&#x00F3;pez-Neyra", C/Ventanilla, 11. 18001 Granada, Spain
</aff>

	
E. If the affiliation information has been presented as a single block of text where the relationships between author and affiliation are complex and cannot be separated easily, tag the entire affiliation block in one <aff>. Most of the time, the authors' names or initials will be sprinkled through this block of text. This is OK. Also, this block of text might contain other information not exactly related to affiliations. This is OK as well.
Set all of the authors in one <contrib-group> and set the <aff> in this <contrib-group>.
Heloisa P. Soares

Ambuj Kumar

Stephanie Daniels

Suzanne Swann

Alan Cantor

Iztok Hozo

Mike Clark

Fadila Serdarevic

Clement Gwede

Andy Trotti

Benjamin Djulbegovic
Author Affiliations: H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute at University of South Florida, Tampa (Drs Soares, Kumar, Cantor, Serdarevic, Gwede, Trotti, and Djulbegovic and Ms Daniels); Department of Statistics, Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pa (Dr Swann); Department of Mathematics, University of Indiana Northwest, Gary (Dr Hozo); UK Cochrane Centre, Oxford, England (Dr Clark).
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Soares</surname>
      <given-names>Heloisa P.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Kumar</surname>
      <given-names>Ambuj</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Daniels</surname>
      <given-names>Stephanie</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Swann</surname>
      <given-names>Suzanne</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Cantor</surname>
      <given-names>Alan</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Hozo</surname>
      <given-names>Iztok</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Clark</surname>
      <given-names>Mike</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Serdarevic</surname>
      <given-names>Fadila</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Gwede</surname>
      <given-names>Clement</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Trotti</surname>
      <given-names>Andy</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Djulbegovic</surname>
      <given-names>Benjamin</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <aff>Author Affiliations: H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute at 
  University of South Florida, Tampa (Drs Soares, Kumar, Cantor, Serdarevic, 
  Gwede, Trotti, and Djulbegovic and Ms Daniels); Department of Statistics, 
  Radiation Therapy Oncology Group, Philadelphia, Pa (Dr Swann); Department of 
  Mathematics, University of Indiana Northwest, Gary (Dr Hozo); UK Cochrane 
  Centre, Oxford, England (Dr Clark).</aff>
</contrib-group>
		
James B. Leverenz, MD

Mark A. Fishel, MD

Elaine R. Peskind, MD

Thomas J. Montine, MD, PhD

David Nochlin, MD

Ellen Steinbart, RN, MA

Murray A. Raskin, MD

Gerard D. Schellenberg, PhD

Thomas D. Bird, MD

Debby Tsuang, MD, MS

Author Affiliations: Parkinson's Disease (Dr Leverenz), Mental Illness (Drs Leverenz, Peskind, Raskind, Schellenberg, and Tsuang and Ms Steinbart), Research, Education, and Clinical Centers, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, Wash; and Departments of Neurology (Drs Leverenz, Fishel, and Bird) and Psychiatry and Behavioral Science (Drs Leverenz, Peskind, Raskind, and Tsuang), Division of Neuropathology, Department of Pathology (Drs Montine and Nochlin), and Division of Gerontology/Geriatrics, Department of Medicine (Dr Schellenberg), University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.
<contrib-group>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Leverenz</surname>
      <given-names>James B.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Fishel</surname>
      <given-names>Mark A.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Peskind</surname>
      <given-names>Elaine R.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Montine</surname>
      <given-names>Thomas J.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD, PhD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Nochlin</surname>
      <given-names>David</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Steinbart</surname>
      <given-names>Ellen</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>RN, MA</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Raskin</surname>
      <given-names>Murray A.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Schellenberg</surname>
      <given-names>Gerard D.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>PhD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <surname>Bird</surname>
      <given-names>Thomas D.</given-names>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <contrib>
    <name>
      <given-names>Debby Tsuang</surname>
    </name>
      <degrees>MD, MS</degrees>
  </contrib>
  <aff>Author Affiliations: Parkinson's Disease (Dr Leverenz), Mental Illness 
  (Drs Leverenz, Peskind, Raskind, Schellenberg, and Tsuang and Ms Steinbart), 
  Research, Education, and Clinical Centers, Veterans Affairs Puget Sound Health 
  Care System, Seattle, Wash; and Departments of Neurology (Drs Leverenz, 
  Fishel, and Bird) and Psychiatry and Behavioral Science (Drs Leverenz, 
  Peskind, Raskind, and Tsuang), Division of Neuropathology, Department of 
  Pathology (Drs Montine and Nochlin), and Division of Gerontology/Geriatrics, 
  Department of Medicine  (Dr Schellenberg), University of Washington School 
  of Medicine, Seattle.</aff>
</contrib-group>
Back
The article back contains information that is published with the article but outside of its main narrative flow. Tag reference lists, acknowledgments, appendices, glossaries, and article-level footnotes in the back matter.
See <ack>, <ref-list>, <app-group>, <glossary>.
Body
Within an article body, all sections must have a label, a title, or both. PMC will unwrap (remove the section tagging for) sections without either a label or title during the conversion process, so do not tag empty sections to adjust the display of section headings.
All article content that appears outside of the main narrative flow is part of the article <back>. This includes (but is not limited to) acknowledgments, glossaries, appendices, and reference lists.
Tag display objects in the article body, immediately following the first reference to that object.
Boxed Text
Tag all display objects (<fig>, <table>, <media>) within <boxed-text> with @position="anchor".
Collaborative Authors

2.3

Use <collab> when a group of authors is credited under a single name. Note that if an author is identified as writing on behalf of a collaboration or organization, you must use <on-behalf-of>, not <collab>.
To include all members of a collaborative author, include an @id on the <collab> tagged in the author <contrib-group>. Tag a separate <contrib-group> with @content-type="collab-list". Tag members of the collaboration in the <contrib-group> as <contrib> with @contrib-type="collab" and @rid pointing to the id of the <collab>. Tag only one <contrib-group> with @content-type="collab-list" per article.
Deanna M. Church, Leo Goodstadt, LaDeana W. Hillier, The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium, and the CORGI Consortium
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Church</surname><given-names>Deanna M.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Goodstadt</surname><given-names>Leo</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Hillier</surname><given-names>LaDeana W.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" id="collab1">
    <collab>The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium</collab>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author" id="collab2">
    <collab>The CORGI Consortium</collab>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>
<contrib-group content-type="collab-list">
  <contrib contrib-type="collab" rid="collab1">
    <name>
      <surname>Kelly</surname><given-names>Laura A.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
    <surname>Chen</surname><given-names> Liu-Hua </given-names>
    </name>
      <name>
      <surname>Randall</surname><given-names>Daniel Lee</given-names>
      <suffix>Jr.</suffix>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="collab" rid="collab2">
    <name>
      <surname>Cheuk-Kwan</surname><given-names>Sun</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Smith</surname><given-names>Janice P.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Tsuchida</surname><given-names>Douglas</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>
			

3.0

Use <collab> when a group of authors is credited under a single name. Note that if an author is identified as writing on behalf of a collaboration or organization, you must use <on-behalf-of>, not <collab>.
Deanna M. Church, Leo Goodstadt, LaDeana W. Hillier, and The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Church</surname><given-names>Deanna M.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Goodstadt</surname><given-names>Leo</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Hillier</surname><given-names>LaDeana W.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <collab>
      The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium
      <contrib-group>
        <contrib>
          <name>
            <surname>Kelly</surname><given-names>Laura A.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <contrib>
          <name>
            <surname>Randall</surname><given-names>Daniel Lee</given-names>
            <suffix>Jr.</suffix>
          </name>
        </contrib>
      </contrib-group>
    </collab>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>		
			

1.0

Use <collab> when a group of authors is credited under a single name. Note that if an author is identified as writing on behalf of a collaboration or organization, you must use <on-behalf-of>, not <collab>.
Deanna M. Church, Leo Goodstadt, LaDeana W. Hillier, and The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium
<contrib-group>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Church</surname><given-names>Deanna M.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Goodstadt</surname><given-names>Leo</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <name>
      <surname>Hillier</surname><given-names>LaDeana W.</given-names>
    </name>
  </contrib>
  <contrib contrib-type="author">
    <collab>
      The Mouse Genome Sequencing Consortium
      <contrib-group>
        <contrib>
          <name>
            <surname>Kelly</surname><given-names>Laura A.</given-names>
          </name>
        </contrib>
        <contrib>
          <name>
            <surname>Randall</surname><given-names>Daniel Lee</given-names>
            <suffix>Jr.</suffix>
          </name>
        </contrib>
      </contrib-group>
    </collab>
  </contrib>
</contrib-group>		
			
Conflict of Interest Statements
Conflict of Interest (COI) statements are statements about possible conflicts of interest. A statement of "The authors declare that no conflicts exist" is a COI statement. COI statements may appear as <fn> in <author-notes> or <fn-group>, as <p> or <sec> in <ack>, as a <sec> in the <body> or <back>, or within the text of one of these objects.
Conflict of interest statements should always be identified with the appropriate content type attribute, depending on the element. For a COI statement captured as <fn> in the Journal Publishing (Blue) DTD, use @fn-type="conflict". Otherwise, use the appropriate content type attribute with a value "COI-statement". Identify the object that most directly includes the COI statement (footnote, paragraph, section, etc.). If this is not possible because the COI statement is mixed with other information in a paragraph, use <named-content> with @content-type="COI-statement".
COI statement in a footnote: Journal Publishing (Blue) DTD
<fn fn-type="conflict">
        	<p>The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest present.
          </p>
          </fn>
          
COI statement in a footnote: Journal Archiving (Green) DTD
<fn fn-type="COI-statement">
        	<p>The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest present.
          </p>
          </fn> 
          
COI statement in a paragraph in Acknowledgments (from Croat Med J. 2014 Dec; 55(6):600-608. PMC4295067
<ack>
  <p>Funding None.</p>
  <p>Ethical approval received from the University of Zagreb School of Medicine 
  Ethics Committee.</p>
  <p>Declaration of authorship BB drafted the manuscript; MP participated in 
  drafting the manuscript and data analysis; DM participated in drafting the 
  manuscript and revising it for content; TK participated in drafting the 
  manuscript and data analysis; LS participated in drafting the manuscript 
  and data collection; VI participated in designing the study and drafting 
  the manuscript; SK participated in drafting the manuscript; AW participated 
  in drafting the manuscript; HG participated in drafting the manuscript; DB 
  participated in drafting the manuscript and revising it for content.</p>
  
  <p content-type="COI-statement">Competing interests DM is Dean of the 
  University of Zagreb School of Medicine, one of the owners of the Croatian 
  Medical Journal and HG is a member of the journal’s editorial board. To 
  ensure that any possible conflict of interest relevant to the journal has 
  been addressed, this article was reviewed according to best practice 
  guidelines of international editorial organizations. All authors have 
  completed the Unified Competing Interest form at <italic><ext-link 
  ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf">
  www.icmje.org/coi_disclosure.pdf</ext-link></italic> (available on 
  request from the corresponding author) and declare: no support from any 
  organization for the submitted work; no financial relationships with any 
  organizations that might have an interest in the submitted work in the 
  previous 3 years; no other relationships or activities that could appear 
  to have influenced the submitted work.</p>
</ack>
		
COI statement in a section in Acknowledgments (from Cost Eff Resour Alloc. 2015; 13:19. PMC4647286)
<ack>
  <title>Authors' contributions</title>
  <p>JN, AB and CB designed the economic study. JL, KO, NC, AS, KB, RD, SJ, HE, MCP, ML, SW, SC, BO, AO, AS, AH,
        AM, RH, and CB designed and conducted FAMOUS. AC conducted the statistical analysis of FAMOUS. JN conducted 
        the economic analysis and wrote the manuscript. AB and CB provided input on the manuscript. All authors 
        read and approved the final manuscript.</p>
  <sec id="FPar1">
    <title>Source of funding</title>
    <p>British Heart Foundation Project Grant PG/11/55/28999; St Jude Medical provided the pressure wires.</p>
  </sec>
  <sec id="FPar2" sec-type="COI-statement">
    <title>Competing interest</title>
    <p>Professor Berry has acted as a consultant for St. Jude Medical based on a contract with his employer, the 
         University of Glasgow. Professor Oldroyd has received consultant and speaker fees from St. Jude Medical 
         and Volcano Corporation which manufacture pressure wires. Professor Curzen has received an unrestricted 
         research grant and fees for lectures and consultancy from St. Jude Medical and an educational grant with 
         Volcano Corporation. None of the other authors have any potential conflict of interest to declare.</p>
  </sec>
</ack>
		
COI statement in a body section (from BMC Oral Health. 2015; 15(Suppl 1):S1. PMC4580824
<sec sec-type="COI-statement">
  <title>Competing interest statement</title>
  <p>Both authors were funded by Colgate Palmolive to attend the Cape Town Conference. 
  Pretty receives an unrestricted research grant from Colgate Palmolive. Colgate 
  Palmolive did not review, edit or preview the content from this or any other 
  submission in relation to the Prevention in Practice supplement.</p>
</sec>
		
COI statement in a body subsection (from EXCLI J. 2014; 834-842. PMC4464516
<sec>
  <title>Conflict of interest</title>
  <sec sec-type="COI-statement">
    <title>Competing interest</title>
    <p>There is no conflict of interest within the authors / no declarations of interest.</p>
  </sec>
  <sec>
    <title>Consent</title>
    <p>Informed written consent was obtained from the probands and their family members.</p>
  </sec>
  <sec>
    <title>Ethics Committee approval</title>
    <p>The study has been approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee, Department of 
    Genetics, Osmania University, INDIA obtained on 24<sup>th</sup> August 2009.</p>
  </sec>
</sec>
		
COI statement mixed with other content in a paragraph
<p>The first two authors contributed equally to this work. 
<named-content content-type="COI-statement">The authors declare that no
conflicts of interest exist.</named-content></p>
		
Contributor ID

2.3

Contributor identifiers, such as ORCID iDs, must be tagged within the <contrib> to which they apply.
When tagging an ORCID iD, tag the full identifier, including "http://orcid.org/" and the 16-digit number.
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <name>
    <surname>Randall</surname>
    <given-names>Laura</given-names>
  </name>
  <uri content-type="orcid">http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7361-560X</uri>
</contrib>
			

3.0

Contributor identifiers, such as ORCID iDs, must be tagged within the <contrib> to which they apply.
When tagging an ORCID iD, tag the full identifier, including "http://orcid.org/" and the 16-digit number.
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <name>
    <surname>Randall</surname>
    <given-names>Laura</given-names>
  </name>
  <uri content-type="orcid">http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7361-560X</uri>
</contrib>
			

1.0

Contributor identifiers, such as ORCID iDs, must be tagged within the <contrib> to which they apply.
When tagging an ORCID iD, tag the full identifier, including "http://orcid.org/" and the 16-digit number.
<contrib contrib-type="author">
  <contrib-id contrib-id-type="orcid">http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7361-560X</contrib-id>
  <name>
    <surname>Randall</surname>
    <given-names>Laura</given-names>
  </name>
</contrib>
			
Copyright Information
Tag all copyright information within <permissions>.
Set any copyright information that is included in the source material in <copyright-statement> and <copyright-year> tags. This information may be in a page header or footer or immediately following the abstract.
Copyright Information usually consists of the word "Copyright", a copyright symbol, the copyright year, and the name of the copyright holder. It might also contain notes, such as Disclaimers.
Include the complete copyright statement (with the date and symbol), in <copyright-statement>. Tag the copyright year in <copyright-year>, whether or not it appears as part of the <copyright-statement>.
Copyright © 2005, Medical Publishing Corp.
<permissions>
  <copyright-statement>Copyright &#xA9; 2005, Medical Publishing
    Corp.</copyright-statement>
  <copyright-year>2005</copyright-year>
</permissions>
			
Copyright © Medical Publishing Corp.
<permissions>
  <copyright-statement>Copyright &x#A9; Medical Publishing
    Corp.</copyright-statement>
  <copyright-year>2005</copyright-year>
</permissions>
			
Dates

2.3

Within metadata, there are two date elements, <date> and <pub-date>. Tag publication dates in <pub-date> and history dates in <date> inside <history>. The date model is the same for both. It allows parsed date information (<day>, <month>, <season>, <year>).
Tag <day>, <month>, and <year> as integers.
<season> is text.
Tag month ranges (April-June) and yearly seasons (Winter, Spring, etc.) in <season>. Do not set the year in <season>. Month ranges should use 3-letter abbreviations separated by a hyphen (-).
Received: January 14, 2012
<date date-type="received">
  <day>14</day>
  <month>1</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</date>
Spring-Summer 2012
<pub-date pub-type="ppub">
  <season>Spring-Summer</season>
  <year>2012</year>
  </pub-date>
Oct-Nov 2012
<pub-date pub-type="collection">
  <season>Oct-Nov</season>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
March 15, 2012
<pub-date pub-type="epub">
  <day>15</day>
  <month>March</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
For examples of using dates inside citations, see the fully-tagged citations.

3.0

Within metadata, there are two date elements, <date> and <pub-date>. Tag publication dates in <pub-date> and history dates in <date> inside <history>. The date model is the same for both. It allows parsed date information (<day>, <month>, <season>, <year>).
Tag <day>, <month>, and <year> as integers.
<season> is text.
Tag month ranges (April-June) and yearly seasons (Winter, Spring, etc.) in <season>. Do not set the year in <season>. Month ranges should use 3-letter abbreviations separated by a hyphen (-).
Received: January 14, 2012
<date date-type="received">
  <day>14</day>
  <month>1</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</date>
Spring-Summer 2012
<pub-date pub-type="ppub">
  <season>Spring-Summer</season>
  <year>2012</year>
  </pub-date>
Oct-Nov 2012
<pub-date pub-type="collection">
  <season>Oct-Nov</season>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
March 15, 2012
<pub-date pub-type="epub">
  <day>15</day>
  <month>March</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
For examples of using dates inside citations, see the fully-tagged citations.

1.0

Within metadata, there are two date elements, <date> and <pub-date>. Tag publication dates in <pub-date> and history dates in <date> inside <history>. The date model is the same for both. It allows parsed date information (<day>, <month>, <season>, <year>).
Tag <day>, <month>, and <year> as integers.
<season> is text.
Tag month ranges (April-June) and yearly seasons (Winter, Spring, etc.) in <season>. Do not set the year in <season>. Month ranges should use 3-letter abbreviations separated by a hyphen (-).
Received: January 14, 2012
<date date-type="received">
  <day>14</day>
  <month>1</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</date>
Spring-Summer 2012
<pub-date date-type="pub"
 publication-format="print">
  <season>Spring-Summer</season>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
Oct-Nov 2012
<pub-date date-type="collection"
 publication-format="electronic">
  <season>Oct-Nov</season>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
March 15, 2012
<pub-date date-type="pub"
 publication-format="electronic">
  <day>15</day>
  <month>3</month>
  <year>2012</year>
</pub-date>
For examples of using dates inside citations, see the fully-tagged citations.
Disclaimers
Tag as <notes> in front matter with @notes-type="disclaimer".
The contents of articles or advertising in the journal are not to be construed as official statements or endorsements by the Medical Publishing Corp.
 <notes notes-type="disclaimer"><p>The contents of
          articles or advertising in the journal are not to be construed as
          official statements or endorsements by the Medical Publishing
          Corp.</p></notes> 
Display Formula

2.3

Tag all <disp-formula> with MathML.
Although we would prefer to have all of the math tagged as MathML, it is acceptable to include images of formulas.
Use the <disp-formula> element so that the object can still be identified as a display formula (and referenced) in the article. <disp-formula> allows <graphic>, which should be used to call the image.
See Sample 2 for examples.

3.0

Tag all <disp-formula> with MathML.
Although we would prefer to have all of the math tagged as MathML, it is acceptable to include images of formulas.
Use the <disp-formula> element so that the object can still be identified as a display formula (and referenced) in the article. <disp-formula> allows <graphic>, which should be used to call the image.

1.0

Tag all <disp-formula> with MathML.
Although we would prefer to have all of the math tagged as MathML, it is acceptable to include images of formulas.
Use the <disp-formula> element so that the object can still be identified as a display formula (and referenced) in the article. <disp-formula> allows <graphic>, which should be used to call the image.
Display Object Groups

2.3

Only use display object groups (<fig-group>, <table-wrap-group>) to tag objects with labels or captions that are part of a larger grouping.
As a general rule, objects that have unique labels or captions and are grouped under a single, common title are display-object groups. Limit the use of display object groups to situations where multi-part objects must have ids, labels, or captions on each individual part and on the group as a whole.
Do not tag single objects with multiple components in a group.

3.0

Only use display object groups (<fig-group>, <table-wrap-group>, <disp-formula-group>) to tag objects with labels or captions that are part of a larger grouping.
As a general rule, objects that have unique labels or captions and are grouped under a single, common title are display-object groups. Limit the use of display object groups to situations where multi-part objects must have ids, labels, or captions on each individual part and on the group as a whole.
Do not tag single objects with multiple components in a group.

1.0

Only use display object groups (<fig-group>, <table-wrap-group>, <disp-formula-group>) to tag objects with labels or captions that are part of a larger grouping.
As a general rule, objects that have unique labels or captions and are grouped under a single, common title are display-object groups. Limit the use of display object groups to situations where multi-part objects must have ids, labels, or captions on each individual part and on the group as a whole.
Do not tag single objects with multiple components in a group.
Display Quote
Use <disp-quote> to tag all block quotes. This allows for visual separation of the quote from the surrounding text, and more accurate tagging, because block quotes generally do not contain textual markers such as quotation marks.
He goes on to integrate these essential histological observations with his knowledge of physiological mechanisms and theorizes on the information flow of cortical circuits. He states:
… it is evident that each a impulse causes the cortical cells to be bombarded by a succession of impulses, thus creating in them a constant state of facilitation, and eventually stimulating them to discharge their axons.
In these propositions, Lorente de Nó essentially describes the dynamic, rapid, and flexible operation of groups of cells, which Hebb would call “cell assemblies,” in a modern physiological framework.
 
<sec> 
  <p>He goes on to integrate these essential histological 
    observations with his knowledge of physiological mechanisms 
    and theorizes on the information flow of cortical circuits. 
    He states:</p> 
  <disp-quote> 
    <p>… it is evident that each a impulse causes 
      the cortical cells to be bombarded by a succession of impulses, 
      thus creating in them a constant state of facilitation, and 
      eventually stimulating them to discharge their axons.</p> 
  </disp-quote> 
  <p>In these propositions, Lorente de Nó 
    essentially describes the dynamic, rapid, and flexible 
    operation of groups of cells, which Hebb would 
    call “cell assemblies,” in a modern 
    physiological framework. </p> 
</sec>
		
DOCTYPE declaration

2.3

The root element is <article>.
Set the PUBLIC identifier to "-//NLM//DTD Journal Publishing DTD v2.3 200700202//EN".
Set the SYSTEM identifier to "journalpublishing.dtd".
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Publishing DTD v2.3 20070202//EN"
"journalpublishing.dtd">
PMC gives priority to the PUBLIC identifer over the SYSTEM identifier. If there is a conflict between the two, PMC will use the PUBLIC identifier.

3.0

The root element is <article>.
Set the PUBLIC identifier to "-//NLM//DTD Journal Publishing DTD v3.0 200800202//EN".
Set the SYSTEM identifier to "journalpublishing3.dtd".
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD Journal Publishing DTD v3.0 20080202//EN"
"journalpublishing3.dtd">
PMC gives priority to the PUBLIC identifer over the SYSTEM identifier. If there is a conflict between the two, PMC will use the PUBLIC identifier.

1.0

The root element is <article>.
Set the PUBLIC identifier to "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.0 20120330//EN".
Set the SYSTEM identifier to "JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd".
<!DOCTYPE article PUBLIC "-//NLM//DTD JATS (Z39.96) Journal Publishing DTD v1.0 20120330//EN"
"JATS-journalpublishing1.dtd">
PMC gives priority to the PUBLIC identifer over the SYSTEM identifier. If there is a conflict between the two, PMC will use the PUBLIC identifier.
External Links
Tag all external links with <ext-link>. PMC will use the text in the <ext-link> element as the active link. The text may be a repeat of the content in the @xlink:href or it may be different.
Use the following @ext-link-type values to tag references to these external objects.
Resource or Protocolext-link-type value Resource URI
Any URLuriresource defined in @xlink:href
Array ExpressEBI:arrayexpress http://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/
Biological Magnetic Resonance Databankbmrb http://www.bmrb.wisc.edu/
CrossRefdoi http://dx.crossref.org/
DDBJ/EMBL/GenBankDDBJ/EMBL/GenBank https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/
EBIemblalign http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/
Entrez GeneNCBI:gene https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/
Entrez ProteinNCBI:nucleotide https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nucleotide/
Entrez ProteinNCBI:protein https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/protein/
Entrez TaxonomyNCBI:taxonomy https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy/
European Nucleotide ArchiveEBI:ena http://www.ebi.ac.uk/ena/
FTPftpresource defined in @xlink:href
Gene Expression OmnibusNCBI:geo https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/
Gene Weaver Database: GeneSetsgeneweaver:geneset http://geneweaver.org/
Molecular Modeling DatabaseNCBI:structure https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/structure/
OMIMOmim https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/omim/
Protein Data BankPDB http://www.pdb.org
PubChem BioassayNCBI:pubchem-bioassay https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pcassay
PubChem CompoundNCBI:pubchem-compound https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pccompound
PubChem SubstanceNCBI:pubchem-substance https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pcsubstance
RefSeqNCBI:refseq https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/RefSeq/
RefSeqGeneNCBI:refseq_gene https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/refseq/rsg/
Sequence Read Archive (SRA)NCBI:sra https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sra/
SwissProtSwissProt http://www.ebi.ac.uk/uniprot/
UniProtUniProt http://www.uniprot.org/
URLs

Use @ext-link-type="uri" to identify web addresses. Tag the complete address in @xlink:href.
... details are available at https://www.nlm.nih.gov/.
... details are available at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" 
xlink:href="https://www.nlm.nih.gov/">https://www.nlm.nih.gov/</ext-link>.
Circulating Now from the NLM's History of Medicine Department is an interesting blog.
<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" 
xlink:href="https://circulatingnow.nlm.nih.gov/">Circulating Now</ext-link> 
from the NLM's History of Medicine Department is an interesting blog.
GenBank

Tag GenBank numbers with @ext-link-type="DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank".
Readings were assembled with a redundancy greater than 10 over 211,190 bp [GenBank: EU008541].
 Readings were assembled with a redundancy greater than 10 over
          211,190 bp [GenBank: <ext-link ext-link-type="DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank"
          xlink:href="EU008541">EU008541</ext-link>].
PubChem Compound

Tag PubChem Compound identifiers with @ext-link-type="NCBI:pubchem-compound".
... with significant sequence homology with trehalose-6-phosphate ...
... with significant sequence homology with 
<ext-link ext-link-type="NCBI:pubchem-compound" 
xlink:href="25246105">trehalose-6-phosphate</ext-link>...
Figures
Figures are the article-level objects that usually contain an image.
Tag all figures that must be displayed in place in the text with @position="anchor". Tag figures that may appear anywhere in the text without losing meaning with @position="float".
Common characteristics of figures with @position="float":
  • It has a label like "Fig. 1" or "Schema IV" or even just "Figure"
  • It has a title or caption
  • It is reference by an <xref> with @ref-type="fig"
If the figure has none of these characteristics or is a child of <boxed-text> or <app>, set the @position="anchor".
Tag any image that must remain at the paragraph level as a <graphic> in a <p> or <sec>.
Set any image that needs to be displayed in the flow of the text as <inline-graphic> in a <p>.
On rare occasions, a named figure (usually it is called something different, like "Scheme") must stay anchored in its position in the text. There may be a <label> and <caption>. In these instances, use @position="anchor" on <fig>.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Figures & Tables

2.3

Referenced figures and tables should be tagged at their first callout in the text. Unreferenced figures and tables should be tagged in <floats-wrap> at the end of the <article>. See Figures and Tables for more details.

3.0

Referenced figures and tables should be tagged at their first callout in the text. Unreferenced figures and tables should be tagged in <floats-group> at the end of the <article>. See Figures and Tables for more details.

1.0

Referenced figures and tables should be tagged at their first callout in the text. Unreferenced figures and tables should be tagged in <floats-group> at the end of the <article>. See Figures and Tables for more details.
Footnotes
Capture footnotes in relative proximity to the part of the article in which it is referenced. For instance, capture author footnotes in <author-notes> and footnotes that apply to the article as a whole in a <fn-group> in the article <back>.
See <fn-group>, <author-notes>, <fn>.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Funding Information

2.3

Tag grant and contract information in <contract-num> and <contract-sponsor>. Tag any prose that describes this information (e.g., "Part of the research at Stanford was supported by NIH GM61374.") as an article-level footnote.
Sponsorship and financial disclosures that apply to the article as a whole must be captured in <fn-group> in <back> with the appropriate @fn-type.
Conflicts of interest statements should be identified with the value "COI-statement" in the appropriate "type" attribute depending on the element that it appears in (eg, @fn-type, @sec-type, @content-type). See Conflict of Interest Statements for details.

3.0

Tag funding information for the article in the <funding-group> element in the article metadata.
Conflicts of interest statements should be identified with the value "COI-statement" in the appropriate "type" attribute depending on the element that it appears in (eg, @fn-type, @sec-type, @content-type). See Conflict of Interest Statements for details.
Funder Identifiers

Capture funder identifiers as <named-content> in the <funding-source>.
<funding-source>Howard Hughes Medical Institute 
    <named-content content-type=“funder-id”>http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000011</named-content>
</funding-source>
			

1.0

Tag funding information for the article in the <funding-group> element in the article metadata.
Conflicts of interest statements should be identified with the value "COI-statement" in the appropriate "type" attribute depending on the element that it appears in (eg, @fn-type, @sec-type, @content-type). See Conflict of Interest Statements for details.
Funder Identifiers

Capture funder identifiers as <named-content> in the <funding-source>.
<funding-source>Howard Hughes Medical Institute 
    <named-content content-type=“funder-id”>http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100000011</named-content>
</funding-source>
			
Generated Text
Do not tag generated text in the XML. This includes (but is not limited to) punctuation between multiple <xref> elements, numbers or letters in an ordered list that has no anomalies (1a, 1b, 2, etc), and punctuation in fully tagged citation elements.
Grant and Contract Information

2.3

Grant and contract information should be tagged in <contract-num> and <contract-sponsor> to build article metadata. Any prose that describes this information (e.g., "Part of the research at Stanford was supported by NIH GM61374.") should be tagged in an article-level footnote.
Inline formula
Only tag inline math in MathML if it cannot be represented with regular elements. For example, any radical or built fraction.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Inline images
Set any image that must remain at the paragraph level as a <graphic> within the <p> or <sec>.
Set any image that must be displayed in the flow of the text as <inline-graphic> in a <p>.
See Figures for more details.
Inline tabular material
Set simple inline tabular material as <array>. If the tabular material is too complicated to be represented with <array>, use <table-wrap> with the @position="anchor".
See Tables for more details.
Journal Information
Tag complete journal information for each article in <journal-meta>.
Labels
Do not tag <label> in <list-item>.
Do not include formatting elements in the content of any label.
Licensing Information

2.3

Licensing information explains how the content may be used, as authorized by the copyright holder. This is separate information from the copyright, which indicates who owns the rights to control distribution of the content.
License information may contain a license type and a text description of the license content.
When including a URI for a license, the URI should be included either on the <license> in @xlink:href or in an <ext-link> in the content of the license. If the URI appears in the license text, tag the URI as an <ext-link> in the content. If the URI does not appear in the license text, tag it as @xlink:href on <license>. The URI must not be tagged in both places.
<permissions>
  <copyright-statement>Copyright &#xA9; 2012 Medical
    Publishing Corp.</copyright-statement>
  <copyright-year>2012</copyright-year>
  <license license-type="open-access"
    xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
    <p>This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the
      Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use,
      distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original
      work is properly cited.</p>
  </license>
</permissions>
			

3.0

Licensing information explains how the content may be used, as authorized by the copyright holder. This is separate information from the copyright, which indicates who owns the rights to control distribution of the content.
License information may contain a license type and a text description of the license content.
When including a URI for a license, the URI should be included either on the <license> in @xlink:href or in an <ext-link> in the content of the license. If the URI appears in the license text, tag the URI as an <ext-link> in the content. If the URI does not appear in the license text, tag it as @xlink:href on <license>. The URI must not be tagged in both places.
When tagging a license whose terms change over time, tag the information in 1 <license> with multiple <license-p>. When tagging multiple types of licenses (open access, CCC statement), use one <license> for each distinct license-type.
Multiple license types.
<permissions>
  <copyright-statement>Copyright &#xA9; 2012 Medical
    Publishing Corp.</copyright-statement>
  <copyright-year>2012</copyright-year>
  <license license-type="open-access"
    xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
    <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the
      Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits
      unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any 
      medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</license-p>
  </license>
  <license license-type="ccc">
    <license-p>For permission to reuse copyrighted content from this publication, 
      please go to <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" 
      xlink:href="http://www.copyright.com">www.copyright.com</ext-link>, or 
      contact Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923</license-p>
  </license>
</permissions>
			
License with URI in the license text.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
<license license-type="open-access">
  <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 
    (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</ext-link>), which permits unrestricted use and 
    redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
</license>
			
License with URI not in the license text.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
<license license-type="open-access" xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
  <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, 
  which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and 
  source are credited.</license-p>
</license>

1.0

Licensing information explains how the content may be used, as authorized by the copyright holder. This is separate information from the copyright, which indicates who owns the rights to control distribution of the content.
License information may contain a license type and a text description of the license content.
When including a URI for a license, the URI should be included either on the <license> in @xlink:href or in an <ext-link> in the content of the license. If the URI appears in the license text, tag the URI as an <ext-link> in the content. If the URI does not appear in the license text, tag it as @xlink:href on <license>. The URI must not be tagged in both places.
When tagging a license whose terms change over time, tag the information in 1 <license> with multiple <license-p>. When tagging multiple types of licenses (open access, CCC statement), use one <license> for each distinct license-type.
Multiple license types.
<permissions>
  <copyright-statement>Copyright &#xA9; 2012 Medical
    Publishing Corp.</copyright-statement>
  <copyright-year>2012</copyright-year>
  <license license-type="open-access"
    xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/">
    <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the
      Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits
      unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any 
      medium, provided the original work is properly cited.</license-p>
  </license>
  <license license-type="ccc">
    <license-p>For permission to reuse copyrighted content from this publication, 
      please go to <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" 
      xlink:href="http://www.copyright.com">www.copyright.com</ext-link>, or 
      contact Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923</license-p>
  </license>
</permissions>
			
License with URI in the license text.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
<license license-type="open-access">
  <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 
    (<ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/</ext-link>), which permits unrestricted use and 
    redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.</license-p>
</license>
			
License with URI not in the license text.
This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and source are credited.
<license license-type="open-access" xlink:href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/">
  <license-p>This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, 
  which permits unrestricted use and redistribution provided that the original author and 
  source are credited.</license-p>
</license>
Lists
Use the <list> only to represent content in lists. Do not use it for formatting.
There are labeled and unlabeled lists. These styles are controlled by the @list-type. The labels will be applied based on the @list-type.
A <list> may be included in the contents of a <list-item> to build a multi-level list or outline.
See <list>.
Math
<mml:math> is the root element for MathML.
Fences:
Elements <mml:msub>, <mml:msup>, and <mml:msubsup> must enclose the entire contents of the expression they affect, not just the closing fence. Fences include: ] } ) x03009; x0232A; x027E9; .
Child Element Restrictions:
These elements require exactly 2 child elements:

  • <mml:mfrac>
  • <mml:mroot>
  • <mml:msub>
  • <mml:msup>
  • <mml:munder>
  • <mml:mover>
These elements require exactly 3 child elements:

  • <mml:munderover>
  • <mml:msubsup>
Allowed only as children of <mml:mmultiscripts>

  • <mml:mprescripts>
  • <mml:none>
Allowed only as children of <mml:semantics>

  • <mml:annotation>
  • <mml:annotation-xml>
Allowed only as a child of <mml:math>

  • <mml:semantics>
MathML Attribute Requirements:
The MathML 1.01 style attributes listed below have been deprecated in MathML 2.0, and should not be used. http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-MathML2-20031021/chapter3.html#presm.deprecatt
Namevaluesdefault
fontsizenumber v-unitinherited
fontweightnormal | boldinherited
fontstylenormal | italicnormal (except on
<mi>
)
fontfamilystring | css-fontfamilyinherited
color#rgb | #rrggbb | html-color-nameinherited
These depricated attributes should be replaced with the appropriate new mathematics style attributes, described here: http://www.w3.org/TR/2003/REC-MathML2-20031021/chapter3.html#presm.commatt
@mathvariant:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( normal | bold | italic | bold-italic | double-struck | bold-fraktur | script | bold-script | fraktur | sans-serif | bold-sans-serif | sans-serif-italic | sans-serif-bold-italic | monospace )
@numalign, @denomalign, @columnalign:
Only the following values are allowed for these attributes: ( left | center | right )
@rowalign:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( top | bottom | center | baseline | axis )
@groupalign:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( left | right | center | decimalpoint )
@equalrows, @equalcolumns, @bevelled:
Only the following values are allowed for these attributes: ( true | false )
@display:
Only the following values are allowed for this attribute: ( inline | block )
Multi-Language Articles
Article and Translation

For an article published in one language and then fully translated into one or more different languages, tag the article in the primary language using <article> and each translation in its own <sub-article>. Identify the language of primary publication using @xml:lang on <article>. Identify the language of the translation using @xml:lang on <sub-article>. Tag frontmatter for the translation in <front> or <front-stub> within the <sub-article>, not in elements in the main <article> <front>. Only the <article> or <sub-article> need to carry the @xml:lang. If the primary article language is English, you do not need to tag @xml:lang on <article> because English is the default value defined in the Tag Set.
Article in French with English translation tagged as <sub-article>
<article xml:lang="fr">
  <front>
    <journal-meta>...</journal-meta>
    <article-meta>
      ...
      <title-group>
        <article-title>Myélome multiple survenant au cours d'une 
      Fièvre Méditerranéenne Familiale</article-title>
      </title-group>
      ...
  <front>
  ...
  <sub-article xml:lang="en">
    <front-stub>
      <title-group>
        <article-title>Multiple myeloma occurring in a Familial Mediterranean Fever</article-title>
      </title-group>
    </front-stub>
    ...
  </sub-article>
  ...
<article>
				
Publication in Multiple Languages

If an article is simultaneously published in multiple languages where none is identified as a translation, the article in each language should be tagged in an independent <article> with @xml:lang. Each <article> must have a <related-article> element with @related-article-type="alt-language" identifying the article in the other languages.
<related-article related-article-type="alt-language" id="ra1" 
   ext-link-type="doi" xlink:href="10.11604/pamj.2013.15.123.1434"/>
				
Notes in Proof
Tag as <notes> in back matter with @notes-type="note-in-proof".
Processing Instructions
The following Processing Instruction(s) can be used for PubMed Central articles:
Release Delay

Use the PI <?release-delay x|y?> to set the release delay for an individual article. The article-level delay will override any delay defined in PMC on the journal level.
  • x is the number of months in the delay
  • y is the number of days in the delay
Both a "month" and "day" value should be included in each PI. Use "0" for "0".
  • <?release-delay 6|0?> — a delay of 6 months.
  • <?release-delay 0|14?> — a delay of 2 weeks.
  • <?release-delay 12|0?> — a delay of 1 year.
  • <?release-delay 0|0?> — no delay (this is useful for immediate-release articles in a journal that normally has a delay set.
  • <?release-delay 3|15?> — a delay of 3 months and 15 days.
Questions & Answers
Tag questions and answers using <list> with @list-content="QandA".
Include each question/answer in a <list-item>. Use the @list-type to set the number style, bullets, or simple (unlabeled).
Question: How many feet in a mile?
Answer: 5280
<list list-content="QandA">
  <list-item>
    <p content-type="question">How many feet in a mile?<p>
    <p content-type="answer">5280<p>
  </list-item>
</list>
			
1. How many feet in a mile?
 5280
2. How many kilometers in a mile?
 1.609344
<list list-content="QandA" list-type="order">
  <list-item>
    <p content-type="question">How many feet in a mile?<p>
    <p content-type="answer">5280<p>
  </list-item>
  <list-item>
    <p content-type="question">How many kilometers in a mile?<p>
    <p content-type="answer">1.609344.<p>
  </list-item>
</list>
			
1. What is the recommended daily dosage?
 a. 2 mg     b. 12 mg

 c. 16 mg     d. 5000 mg
 Answer: 12 mg
<list list-type="order" list-content="QandA">
  <list-item>
    <p content-type="question">What is the recommended daily dosage?
      <list list-type="alpha-lower">
        <list-item><p>2 mg</p></list-item>
        <list-item><p>12 mg</p></list-item>
        <list-item><p>16 mg</p></list-item>
        <list-item><p>5000 mg</p></list-item>
      </list>
    </p>
    <p content-type="answer">12 mg</p>
  <list-item>
</list>
			
References

2.3

A reference list (<ref-list>) is a series of references (<ref>). Generally each reference item contains only one citation element (<citation> or <nlm-citation>), but occasionally a single reference item may have more than one citation.
Multiple citations in one reference

6. (a) De Albuquerque IL, Galeffi C, Casinovi CG, Marini-Bettolo GB. Gazz Chim Ital.

    1964;94:287. (b) Alcantara, A. F. de C.;Souza, MR.; Pilo-Veloso, D. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:613.
<ref id="R6">
  <label>6</label>
  <citation citation-type="journal">
    <label>(a)</label>
    <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
        <surname>De Albuquerque</surname>
        <given-names>I. L.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Galeffi</surname>
        <given-names>C.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Casinovi</surname>
        <given-names>C. G.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Marini-Bettolo</surname>
        <given-names>G. B.</given-names>
      </name>
    </person-group>
    <source>Gazz. Chim. Ital.</source>
    <year>1964</year>
    <volume>94</volume>
    <fpage>287</fpage>
  </citation>
  <citation citation-type="journal">
    <label>(b)</label>
    <person-group person-group-type="author">
      <name>
        <surname>Alcantara</surname>
        <given-names>A. F. de C.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Souza</surname>
        <given-names>M. R.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Pilo-Veloso</surname>
        <given-names>D.</given-names>
      </name>
    </person-group>
    <source>Fitoterapia</source>
    <year>2000</year>
    <volume>71</volume>
    <fpage>613</fpage>
  </citation>
</ref>
			
Notes or end notes in a reference

9. The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether 2 in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is not the active catalyst.
<ref id="R9">
  <label>9</label>
  <note>
    <p>The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether
      <bold>2</bold> in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity
      (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is
      not the active catalyst.</p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with a citation

8. For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis acid catalyst, see: Bajwa JS, Jiang X, Slade J, Prasad K, Repic O, Blacklock TJ. Tetrahedron Lett. 2002;43:6709.
<ref id="R8">
  <label>8</label>
  <note>
    <p>For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl 
      bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis
      acid catalyst, see: <citation citation-type="journal">
      <person-group person-group-type="author">
        <name>
          <surname>Bajwa</surname>
          <given-names>J. S.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Jiang</surname>
          <given-names>X.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Slade</surname>
          <given-names>J.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Prasad</surname>
          <given-names>K.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Repic</surname>
          <given-names>O.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Blacklock</surname>
          <given-names>T. J.</given-names>
        </name>
      </person-group>
      <source>Tetrahedron Lett.</source>
      <year>2002</year>
      <volume>43</volume>
      <fpage>6709</fpage>
      </citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with citations and text mixed

17. Chatterjee AK, Morgan JP, Scholl M, Grubbs RH. J Am Chem Soc. 2000;122:3783. For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see: Connon SJ, Blechert S. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2003;42:1900.
<ref id="R17">
  <label>17</label>
  <note>
    <p>
      <citation citation-type="journal">
        <person-group person-group-type="author">
          <name>
            <surname>Chatterjee</surname>
            <given-names>A. K.</given-names>
          </name>
          <name>
            <surname>Morgan</surname>
            <given-names>J. P.</given-names>
          </name>
          <name>
            <surname>Scholl</surname>
            <given-names>M.</given-names>
          </name>
          <name>
            <surname>Grubbs</surname>
            <given-names>R. H.</given-names>
          </name>
        </person-group>
        <source>J. Am. Chem. Soc.</source>
        <year>2000</year>
        <volume>122</volume>
        <fpage>3783</fpage>
      </citation>
      For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see:
        <citation citation-type="journal">
          <person-group person-group-type="author">
            <name>
              <surname>Connon</surname>
              <given-names>S. J.</given-names>
            </name>
            <name>
              <surname>Blechert</surname>
              <given-names>S.</given-names>
            </name>
          </person-group>
          <source>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</source>
          <year>2003</year>
          <volume>42</volume>
          <fpage>1900</fpage>
        </citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
See Sample PubMed Central Citations for fully-tagged examples of citations.

3.0

A reference list (<ref-list>) is a series of references (<ref>). Generally each reference item contains only one citation element (<mixed-citation> or <element-citation>), but occasionally a single reference item may have more than one citation.
Multiple citations in one reference

6. (a) De Albuquerque IL, Galeffi C, Casinovi CG, Marini-Bettolo GB. Gazz Chim Ital.

    1964;94:287. (b) Alcantara, A. F. de C.;Souza, MR.; Pilo-Veloso, D. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:613.
<ref id="R6">
  <label>6</label>
  <element-citation publication-type="journal">
    <label>(a)</label>
    <name>
      <surname>De Albuquerque</surname>
      <given-names>I. L.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Galeffi</surname>
      <given-names>C.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Casinovi</surname>
      <given-names>C. G.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Marini-Bettolo</surname>
      <given-names>G. B.</given-names>
    </name>
    <source>Gazz. Chim. Ital.</source>
    <year>1964</year>
    <volume>94</volume>
    <fpage>287</fpage>
  </element-citation>
  <element-citation publication-type="journal">
    <label>(b)</label>
    <name>
      <surname>Alcantara</surname>
      <given-names>A. F. de C.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Souza</surname>
      <given-names>M. R.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Pilo-Veloso</surname>
      <given-names>D.</given-names>
    </name>
    <source>Fitoterapia</source>
    <year>2000</year>
    <volume>71</volume>
    <fpage>613</fpage>
  </element-citation>
</ref>
			
Notes or end notes in a reference

9. The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether 2 in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is not the active catalyst.
<ref id="R9">
  <label>9</label>
  <note>
    <p>The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether
      <bold>2</bold> in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity
      (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is
      not the active catalyst.</p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with a citation

8. For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis acid catalyst, see: Bajwa JS, Jiang X, Slade J, Prasad K, Repic O, Blacklock TJ. Tetrahedron Lett. 2002;43:6709.
<ref id="R8">
  <label>8</label>
  <note>
    <p>For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl 
      bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis
      acid catalyst, see: <element-citation publication-type="journal">
      <name>
        <surname>Bajwa</surname>
        <given-names>J. S.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Jiang</surname>
        <given-names>X.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Slade</surname>
        <given-names>J.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Prasad</surname>
        <given-names>K.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Repic</surname>
        <given-names>O.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Blacklock</surname>
        <given-names>T. J.</given-names>
      </name>
      <source>Tetrahedron Lett.</source>
      <year>2002</year>
      <volume>43</volume>
      <fpage>6709</fpage>
      </element-citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with citations and text mixed

17. Chatterjee AK, Morgan JP, Scholl M, Grubbs RH. J Am Chem Soc. 2000;122:3783. For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see: Connon SJ, Blechert S. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2003;42:1900.
<ref id="R17">
  <label>17</label>
  <note>
    <p>
      <element-citation publication-type="journal">
        <name>
          <surname>Chatterjee</surname>
          <given-names>A. K.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Morgan</surname>
          <given-names>J. P.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Scholl</surname>
          <given-names>M.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Grubbs</surname>
          <given-names>R. H.</given-names>
        </name>
        <source>J. Am. Chem. Soc.</source>
        <year>2000</year>
        <volume>122</volume>
        <fpage>3783</fpage>
      </element-citation>
      For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see:
      <element-citation publication-type="journal">
        <name>
          <surname>Connon</surname>
          <given-names>S. J.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Blechert</surname>
          <given-names>S.</given-names>
        </name>
        <source>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</source>
        <year>2003</year>
        <volume>42</volume>
        <fpage>1900</fpage>
      </mixed-citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
See Sample PubMed Central Citations for fully-tagged examples of citations.

1.0

A reference list (<ref-list>) is a series of references (<ref>). Generally each reference item contains only one citation element (<mixed-citation> or <element-citation>), but occasionally a single reference item may have more than one citation.
Multiple citations in one reference

6. (a) De Albuquerque IL, Galeffi C, Casinovi CG, Marini-Bettolo GB. Gazz Chim Ital.

    1964;94:287. (b) Alcantara, A. F. de C.;Souza, MR.; Pilo-Veloso, D. Fitoterapia. 2000;71:613.
<ref id="R6">
  <label>6</label>
  <element-citation publication-type="journal">
    <label>(a)</label>
    <name>
      <surname>De Albuquerque</surname>
      <given-names>I. L.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Galeffi</surname>
      <given-names>C.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Casinovi</surname>
      <given-names>C. G.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Marini-Bettolo</surname>
      <given-names>G. B.</given-names>
    </name>
    <source>Gazz. Chim. Ital.</source>
    <year>1964</year>
    <volume>94</volume>
    <fpage>287</fpage>
  </element-citation>
  <element-citation publication-type="journal">
    <label>(b)</label>
    <name>
      <surname>Alcantara</surname>
      <given-names>A. F. de C.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Souza</surname>
      <given-names>M. R.</given-names>
    </name>
    <name>
      <surname>Pilo-Veloso</surname>
      <given-names>D.</given-names>
    </name>
    <source>Fitoterapia</source>
    <year>2000</year>
    <volume>71</volume>
    <fpage>613</fpage>
  </element-citation>
</ref>
			
Notes or end notes in a reference

9. The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether 2 in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is not the active catalyst.
<ref id="R9">
  <label>9</label>
  <note>
    <p>The addition of water (100 mol %) afforded the cyclic ether
      <bold>2</bold> in quantitative yield and with excellent selectivity
      (entry 4). This further supports the notion that triethylsilyl bromide is
      not the active catalyst.</p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with a citation

8. For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis acid catalyst, see: Bajwa JS, Jiang X, Slade J, Prasad K, Repic O, Blacklock TJ. Tetrahedron Lett. 2002;43:6709.
<ref id="R8">
  <label>8</label>
  <note>
    <p>For an alternative mechanistic proposal that suggests the triethylsilyl 
      bromide formed from triethylsilane and bismuth tribromide behaves as a Lewis
      acid catalyst, see: <element-citation publication-type="journal">
      <name>
        <surname>Bajwa</surname>
        <given-names>J. S.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Jiang</surname>
        <given-names>X.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Slade</surname>
        <given-names>J.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Prasad</surname>
        <given-names>K.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Repic</surname>
        <given-names>O.</given-names>
      </name>
      <name>
        <surname>Blacklock</surname>
        <given-names>T. J.</given-names>
      </name>
      <source>Tetrahedron Lett.</source>
      <year>2002</year>
      <volume>43</volume>
      <fpage>6709</fpage>
      </element-citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
Note with citations and text mixed

17. Chatterjee AK, Morgan JP, Scholl M, Grubbs RH. J Am Chem Soc. 2000;122:3783. For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see: Connon SJ, Blechert S. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2003;42:1900.
<ref id="R17">
  <label>17</label>
  <note>
    <p>
      <element-citation publication-type="journal">
        <name>
          <surname>Chatterjee</surname>
          <given-names>A. K.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Morgan</surname>
          <given-names>J. P.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Scholl</surname>
          <given-names>M.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Grubbs</surname>
          <given-names>R. H.</given-names>
        </name>
        <source>J. Am. Chem. Soc.</source>
        <year>2000</year>
        <volume>122</volume>
        <fpage>3783</fpage>
      </element-citation>
      For a recent review on olefin cross-metathesis, see:
      <element-citation publication-type="journal">
        <name>
          <surname>Connon</surname>
          <given-names>S. J.</given-names>
        </name>
        <name>
          <surname>Blechert</surname>
          <given-names>S.</given-names>
        </name>
        <source>Angew. Chem. Int. Ed.</source>
        <year>2003</year>
        <volume>42</volume>
        <fpage>1900</fpage>
      </mixed-citation>
    </p>
  </note>
</ref>
			
See Sample PubMed Central Citations for fully-tagged examples of citations.
Related Articles

2.3

Journal articles that are directly related to the current content may be described with <related-article> . These appear most often in corrections and commentaries.

3.0

Journal articles that are directly related to the current content may be described with <related-article> . These appear most often in corrections and commentaries.
See also Related Objects.

1.0

Journal articles that are directly related to the current content may be described with <related-article> . These appear most often in corrections and commentaries.
See also Related Objects.
Related Objects

2.3

Related objects are not available in this version. See Related Articles.

3.0

Objects that are directly related to the current content may be described with <related-object>. The related content may be as specific as a table in a chapter of a book or as broad as an entire series of books. Single journal articles may be described in either <related-article> or <related-object>.

1.0

Objects that are directly related to the current content may be described with <related-object>. The related content may be as specific as a table in a chapter of a book or as broad as an entire series of books. Single journal articles may be described in either <related-article> or <related-object>.
Response and Sub-Article

2.3

A <response> is a direct response or answer to a question or proposed topic presented in the parent <article>. Usually a <response> cannot stand on its own, requiring the parent <article> to provide necessary context for the content.
A <sub-article> is content written on the same topic as the parent <article>, but is not a direct answer to it. Understanding its content is not dependent on the context provided by the parent <article>.
Each <response> and <sub-article> must contain its own front matter. In most cases, the abbreviated model in <front-stub> is sufficient for properly tagging both. Each <response> and <sub-article> inherits any front matter not explicitly tagged in <front-stub> from its parent <article>.
Each <response> must specify the @response-type and each <sub-article> must specify @article-type.
Fully-tagged samples of both <response> and <sub-article> are available in a compressed zip file or individually here:

3.0

A <response> is a direct response or answer to a question or proposed topic presented in the parent <article>. Usually a <response> cannot stand on its own, requiring the parent <article> to provide necessary context for the content.
A <sub-article> is content written on the same topic as the parent <article>, but is not a direct answer to it. Understanding its content is not dependent on the context provided by the parent <article>.
Each <response> and <sub-article> must contain its own front matter. In most cases, the abbreviated model in <front-stub> is sufficient for properly tagging both. Each <response> and <sub-article> inherits any front matter not explicitly tagged in <front-stub> from its parent <article>.
Each <response> must specify the @response-type and each <sub-article> must specify @article-type.
Fully-tagged samples of both <response> and <sub-article> are available in a compressed zip file or individually here:

1.0

A <response> is a direct response or answer to a question or proposed topic presented in the parent <article>. Usually a <response> cannot stand on its own, requiring the parent <article> to provide necessary context for the content.
A <sub-article> is content written on the same topic as the parent <article>, but is not a direct answer to it. Understanding its content is not dependent on the context provided by the parent <article>.
Each <response> and <sub-article> must contain its own front matter. In most cases, the abbreviated model in <front-stub> is sufficient for properly tagging both. Each <response> and <sub-article> inherits any front matter not explicitly tagged in <front-stub> from its parent <article>.
Each <response> must specify the @response-type and each <sub-article> must specify @article-type.
Fully-tagged samples of both <response> and <sub-article> are available in a compressed zip file or individually here:
Sections/Subsections
Sections and subsections are identifiable by their titles or labels. If an article does not have a labeled or titled opening section, do not tag one in the XML.
Introduction
Planning in advance is widely encouraged as a way to improve quality of care at the end of life.1 Cross cultural studies have shown that healthcare providers and patients often differ in their views on health related matters....
Methods
We carried out a focused ethnographic study8 within a care programme for elderly people in east Baltimore, United States. For the past 20 years this programme has provided medical and nursing care to generally frail housebound elderly people (mean age 77 years) in a largely working class community.
<body>
  <sec>
    <title>Introduction</title>
      <p>Planning in advance is widely encouraged as a way to improve quality
        of care at the end of life.<xref ref-type="bibr" id="R1">1</xref>
        Cross cultural studies have shown that healthcare providers and patients
        often differ in their views on health related matters....</p>
  </sec>
  <sec>
    <title>Methods</title>
      <p>We carried out a focused ethnographic study
        <xref ref-type="bibr" id="R1">8</xref> within a care programme
        for elderly people in east Baltimore, United States. For the past 20
        years this programme has provided medical and nursing care to
        generally frail housebound elderly people (mean age 77 years) in a
        largely working class community.</p>
It has now been 50 years since Briggs and King...published their paper showing that normal hatched tadpoles can be obtained by transplanting the nucleus of a blastula cell to the enucleated eggs of Rana pipiens. This finding provided an initial answer to the long-standing question of whether the process of development and cell differentiation requires a loss or stable change in the genetic constitution of cells....
Amphibia
Briggs and King's immediate pursuit of their 1952 breakthrough gave the somewhat surprising result that, whereas blastula nuclei supported normal tadpole development in up to 40% of all tests, gastrula nuclei were markedly less successful. By the tail-bud stage, nuclei of the endoderm (and in later work nuclei of other germ layers) gave only abnormal embryo development ..., even though the nuclei of tail-bud germ cells gave a high proportion of tadpole development....
<body>
  <p>It has now been 50 years since Briggs and King...published their paper
    showing that normal hatched tadpoles can be obtained by transplanting the
    nucleus of a blastula cell to the enucleated eggs of Rana pipiens. This 
    finding provided an initial answer to the long-standing question of whether
    the process of development and cell differentiation requires a loss or
    stable change in the genetic constitution of cells....</p>
<sec>
  <title>Amphibia</title>
    <p>Briggs and King's immediate pursuit of their 1952 breakthrough gave
      the somewhat surprising result that, whereas blastula nuclei supported
      normal tadpole development in up to 40% of all tests, gastrula nuclei were
      markedly less successful. By the tail-bud stage, nuclei of the endoderm
      (and in later work nuclei of other germ layers) gave only abnormal embryo
      development ..., even though the nuclei of tail-bud germ cells gave a high
      proportion of tadpole development....</p>
Signatures
Signature blocks should be captured in <sig-block> with each signature tagged in its own <sig>.
See Sample 3 for an example.
Denton A. Cooley, MD, Surgeon-in-Chief,

Texas Heart Institute at

St. Luke's Episcopal Hospital,

Houston

<sig-block>
  <sig>Denton A. Cooley, MD<break/>
    President, Texas Heart Institute at St. Luke's 
    Episcopal Hospital, Houston</sig>
</sig-block>
  
Supplementary Material
Supplementary material (<supplementary-material>) is treated as an article-level object (like <fig> or <table-wrap>). All supplemental objects should be tagged within one <sec> with @sec-type "supplementary-material" appearing at the end of <body>.
Referenced <supplementary-material> must have an @id. All <supplementary-material> may have a <label> and <caption>. Use <media> or <graphic> within <supplementary-material> to describe the supplemental file.
Supplemental figures and tables may be tagged using <fig> or <table-wrap>, respectively, instead of <supplementary-material>. These must also be tagged within the supplementary-material section.
See also <supplementary-material>. See Sample 2 for additional examples.
<sec sec-type="supplementary-material" id="sec4">
  <title>Supporting information</title>
  <supplementary-material id="SD1">
    <label>Supporting Video 1</label>
    <caption>
      <title>Demonstrations</title>
      <p>A video demonstration of the methods used in this paper.</p>
    </caption>
    <media xlink:href="lak-23-1-14-s1.mp4" mimetype="video" mime-subtype="mp4"/>
  </supplementary-material>  
  <fig id="SD2">
    <label>Supporting Figure 1</label>
    <graphic xlink:href="lak-23-1-13-s2.jpg"/>
  </fig>
</sec>
Tables

2.3

Tables are the article-level objects that contain tabular material - usually in a <table-wrap>.
Tag all tables that must be displayed in place in the text with @position="anchor". Tag tables that may “float” or appear anywhere in the text without losing meaning with the attribute @position="float".
Common characteristics of tables with @position="float":
  • It has a label like "Table 1" or "Table".
  • It has a title or caption.
  • It is reference by an <xref> with @ref-type="table".
If the table has none of these characteristics or is a child of <boxed-text> or <app>, set the @position="anchor".
Set any tabular material that needs to be displayed in the flow of the text as <array> in a <p>.
On rare occasions, a named table must stay anchored in its position in the text. There may be a <label> and <caption>. In these instances, use @position="anchor" on <table>.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Table Coloring and Shading

Coloring and shading within table rows and cells should only be used to convey information. Background and font colors can be set within the elements <td>, <tr>, <thead> and <th> using @style attribute.
  • For text color: <td style="color:#990099">1R</td>
  • For background shading: <tr style="background-color:#CCCCFF"></tr>
  • For both: <th style="background-color:#66FFFF;color:#003300">Cadaver</th>
Use hexadecimal color codes in the attribute.

3.0

Tables are the article-level objects that contain tabular material - usually in a <table-wrap>.
Tag all tables that must be displayed in place in the text with @position="anchor". Tag tables that may “float” or appear anywhere in the text without losing meaning with the attribute @position="float".
Common characteristics of tables with @position="float":
  • It has a label like "Table 1" or "Table".
  • It has a title or caption.
  • It is reference by an <xref> with @ref-type="table".
If the table has none of these characteristics or is a child of <boxed-text> or <app>, set the @position="anchor".
Set any tabular material that needs to be displayed in the flow of the text as <array> in a <p>.
On rare occasions, a named table must stay anchored in its position in the text. There may be a <label> and <caption>. In these instances, use @position="anchor" on <table>.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Table Coloring and Shading

Coloring and shading within table rows and cells should only be used to convey information. Background and font colors can be set within the elements <td>, <tr>, <thead> and <th> using @style attribute.
  • For text color: <td style="color:#990099">1R</td>
  • For background shading: <tr style="background-color:#CCCCFF"></tr>
  • For both: <th style="background-color:#66FFFF;color:#003300">Cadaver</th>
Use hexadecimal color codes in the attribute.

1.0

Tables are the article-level objects that contain tabular material - usually in a <table-wrap>.
Tag all tables that must be displayed in place in the text with @position="anchor". Tag tables that may “float” or appear anywhere in the text without losing meaning with the attribute @position="float".
Common characteristics of tables with @position="float":
  • It has a label like "Table 1" or "Table".
  • It has a title or caption.
  • It is reference by an <xref> with @ref-type="table".
If the table has none of these characteristics or is a child of <boxed-text> or <app>, set the @position="anchor".
Set any tabular material that needs to be displayed in the flow of the text as <array> in a <p>.
On rare occasions, a named table must stay anchored in its position in the text. There may be a <label> and <caption>. In these instances, use @position="anchor" on <table>.
See Sample 2 for examples.
Table Coloring and Shading

Coloring and shading within table rows and cells should only be used to convey information. Background and font colors can be set within the elements <td>, <tr>, <thead> and <th> using @style attribute.
  • For text color: <td style="color:#990099">1R</td>
  • For background shading: <tr style="background-color:#CCCCFF"></tr>
  • For both: <th style="background-color:#66FFFF;color:#003300">Cadaver</th>
Use hexadecimal color codes in the attribute.