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1.

Stem Cells

Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Year introduced: 1984

2.

Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Mesenchymal stem cells, also referred to as multipotent stromal cells or mesenchymal stromal cells are multipotent, non-hematopoietic adult stem cells that are present in multiple tissues, including BONE MARROW; ADIPOSE TISSUE; and WHARTON JELLY. Mesenchymal stem cells can differentiate into mesodermal lineages, such as adipocytic, osteolytic and chondrocytic.

Year introduced: 2019

3.

Neural Stem Cells

Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.

Year introduced: 2011

4.

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Cells from adult organisms that have been reprogrammed into a pluripotential state similar to that of EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

Year introduced: 2010

5.

Embryonal Carcinoma Stem Cells

The malignant stem cells of TERATOCARCINOMAS, which resemble pluripotent stem cells of the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS. The EC cells can be grown in vitro, and experimentally induced to differentiate. They are used as a model system for studying early embryonic cell differentiation.

Year introduced: 2008

6.

Adult Stem Cells

Tissue-specific stem cells (also known as Somatic Stem Cells) that appear during fetal development and remain in the body throughout life. The key functions of adult stem cells are to maintain and repair the specific tissues where they reside (e.g. skin or blood).

Year introduced: 2007

7.

Fetal Stem Cells

Cells derived from a FETUS that retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Year introduced: 2007

8.

Embryonic Stem Cells

Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.

Year introduced: 2007

9.

Pluripotent Stem Cells

Cells that can give rise to cells of the three different GERM LAYERS.

Year introduced: 2003

10.

Multipotent Stem Cells

Specialized stem cells that are committed to give rise to cells that have a particular function; examples are MYOBLASTS; MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS; and skin stem cells. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)

Year introduced: 2003

11.

Totipotent Stem Cells

Single cells that have the potential to form an entire organism. They have the capacity to specialize into extraembryonic membranes and tissues, the embryo, and all postembryonic tissues and organs. (Stem Cells: A Primer [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Institutes of Health (US); 2000 May [cited 2002 Apr 5]. Available from: http://www.nih.gov/news/stemcell/primer.htm)

Year introduced: 2003

12.

Neoplastic Stem Cells

Highly proliferative, self-renewing, and colony-forming stem cells which give rise to NEOPLASMS.

Year introduced: 2008 (1984)

13.

Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derived. They are found primarily in the bone marrow and also in small numbers in the peripheral blood.

Year introduced: 1972(1971)

14.

Oogonial Stem Cells

Primordial germ cells found in embryonic OOGONIA and postnatal OVARIES.

Year introduced: 2017(2014)

15.

Adult Germline Stem Cells

Progenitor stem cells found in the testicles.

Year introduced: 2017(1994)

16.

Peripheral Blood Stem Cells

Hematopoietic stem cells found in peripheral blood circulation.

Year introduced: 2017

17.

Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS of day 3.5 mouse embryos.

Year introduced: 2016

18.

Human Embryonic Stem Cells

A type of PLURIPOTENT STEM CELLS derived from early stage human embryos, up to and including the BLASTOCYST stage.

Year introduced: 2016

19.

Erythroid Precursor Cells

The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.

Year introduced: 2009 (1990)

20.

Lymphoid Progenitor Cells

Stem cells from which B-LYMPHOCYTES; T-LYMPHOCYTES; NATURAL KILLER CELLS; and some DENDRITIC CELLS derive.

Year introduced: 2008

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