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The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.


Cognitive Science

The study of the precise nature of different mental tasks and the operations of the brain that enable them to be performed, engaging branches of psychology, computer science, philosophy, and linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)

Year introduced: 1997


National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division

An organization that initiates and conducts studies of national policy and planning for health care and health-related education and research; it also responds to requests from the federal government and other agencies for studies and advice. Was founded as the Institute of Medicine in 1970 and changed in 2016 to a Division of the Academies.

Year introduced: 2020 (1990)


Medical Laboratory Science

The specialty related to the performance of techniques in clinical pathology such as those in hematology, microbiology, and other general clinical laboratory applications.

Year introduced: 2012 (1966)


Religion and Science

The interrelationship of science and religion.


Natural Science Disciplines

The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.

Year introduced: 2009 (1998)


Military Science

Study of the causes as well as tactical and strategic principles of WARFARE.

Year introduced: NAVAL SCIENCE was heading 1963-1982


Library Science

Study of the principles and practices of library administration and services.


Laboratory Animal Science

The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.

Year introduced: 1987


Information Science

The field of knowledge, theory, and technology dealing with the collection of facts and figures, and the processes and methods involved in their manipulation, storage, dissemination, publication, and retrieval. It includes the fields of COMMUNICATION; PUBLISHING; LIBRARY SCIENCE; and informatics.

Year introduced: 1993


Christian Science

A religion founded by Mary Baker Eddy in 1866 that was organized under the official name of the Church of Christ, Scientist. It includes the practice of spiritual healing.


Biological Science Disciplines

All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.

Year introduced: 2009 (1991)


Translational Science, Biomedical

The field of investigation which seeks to understand the scientific and operational principles underlying each step of the translational process to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of translational research in all therapeutic areas. (from Nat Rev Drug Discov 2018 Jul;17(7):455-456)

Year introduced: 2022 (2012)


Citizen Science

Voluntary public participation in the scientific process, addressing real-world problems in ways that may include formulating research questions, conducting scientific experiments, collecting and analyzing data, interpreting results, making new discoveries, developing technologies and applications, for solving complex problems. (From https://www.citizenscience.gov/)

Year introduced: 2020


Environmental Science

Scientific discipline that studies external factors, both biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving), to which an organism is exposed.

Year introduced: 2020(2004)


Implementation Science

The study of methods to promote the adoption and integration of evidence-based practices, interventions and policies into routine health care and public health settings.

Year introduced: 2019


Data Science

An interdisciplinary field involving processes, theories, concepts, tools, and technologies, that enable the review, analysis, and extraction of valuable knowledge and information from structured and unstructured (raw) data.

Year introduced: 2019


Science in Literature

Literary works whose subject matter is science or about the profession of science and related areas.

Year introduced: 2018


Science in the Arts

Depiction of scientific issues or themes via the arts including visual, oral, or written forms of expression.

Year introduced: 2018


Materials Science

An interdisciplinary study of the microstructure and composition of various materials such as metals, semiconductors, ceramics, and polymers, in relation to their macromolecular physical and chemical properties. Materials science enables the custom creation of new materials with specific properties and uses.

Year introduced: 2018

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