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The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.


radiotherapy [Subheading]

Used with disease headings for the therapeutic use of ionizing and nonionizing radiation. It includes the use of radioisotope therapy.

Year introduced: 1966


Heavy Ion Radiotherapy

The use of a heavy ion particle beam for radiotherapy, such as the HEAVY IONS of CARBON.

Year introduced: 2013


Radiotherapy Setup Errors

Mistakes committed in the preparations for radiotherapy, including errors in positioning of patients, alignment radiation beams, or calculation of radiation doses.

Year introduced: 2012


Radiotherapy, Image-Guided

The use of pre-treatment imaging modalities to position the patient, delineate the target, and align the beam of radiation to achieve optimal accuracy and reduce radiation damage to surrounding non-target tissues.

Year introduced: 2012


Radiotherapy, Intensity-Modulated

CONFORMAL RADIOTHERAPY that combines several intensity-modulated beams to provide improved dose homogeneity and highly conformal dose distributions.

Year introduced: 2006


Radiotherapy, Conformal

A therapy using IONIZING RADIATION where there is improved dose homogeneity within the tumor and reduced dosage to uninvolved structures. The precise shaping of dose distribution is achieved via the use of computer-controlled multileaf collimators.

Year introduced: 1999


Radiotherapy, Adjuvant

Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.

Year introduced: 1995


Radiotherapy, High-Energy

Radiotherapy using high-energy (megavolt or higher) ionizing radiation. Types of radiation include gamma rays, produced by a radioisotope within a teletherapy unit; x-rays, electrons, protons, alpha particles (helium ions) and heavy charged ions, produced by particle acceleration; and neutrons and pi-mesons (pions), produced as secondary particles following bombardment of a target with a primary particle.

Year introduced: 1964


Radiotherapy, Computer-Assisted

Computer systems or programs used in accurate computations for providing radiation dosage treatment to patients.

Year introduced: 1987


Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted

Computer-assisted mathematical calculations of beam angles, intensities of radiation, and duration of irradiation in radiotherapy.

Year introduced: 1991(1987)


Radiotherapy Dosage

The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.

Year introduced: 1964



A collective term for interstitial, intracavity, and surface radiotherapy. It uses small sealed or partly-sealed sources that may be placed on or near the body surface or within a natural body cavity or implanted directly into the tissues.

Year introduced: 1980


Radiation Dose Hypofractionation

A treatment schedule in which the total dose of radiation is divided into large doses but fewer exposure times.

Year introduced: 2019(2016)


Dose Fractionation, Radiation

Administration of the total dose of radiation (RADIATION DOSAGE) in parts, at timed intervals.

Year introduced: 2019(2008)


Neoadjuvant Therapy

Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.

Year introduced: 1999



A radiological stereotactic technique developed for cutting or destroying tissue by high doses of radiation in place of surgical incisions. It was originally developed for neurosurgery on structures in the brain and its use gradually spread to radiation surgery on extracranial structures as well. The usual rigid needles or probes of stereotactic surgery are replaced with beams of ionizing radiation directed toward a target so as to achieve local tissue destruction.

Year introduced: 1992


Lymphatic Irradiation

External or interstitial irradiation to treat lymphomas (e.g., Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and lymph node metastases and also some autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis.

Year introduced: 1989

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