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1.

Hormones

Chemical substances having a specific regulatory effect on the activity of a certain organ or organs. The term was originally applied to substances secreted by various ENDOCRINE GLANDS and transported in the bloodstream to the target organs. It is sometimes extended to include those substances that are not produced by the endocrine glands but that have similar effects.

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Gonadal Hormones

Hormones produced by the GONADS, including both steroid and peptide hormones. The major steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL and PROGESTERONE from the OVARY, and TESTOSTERONE from the TESTIS. The major peptide hormones include ACTIVINS and INHIBINS.

Year introduced: 2004

4.

Glycoprotein Hormones, alpha Subunit

The alpha chain of pituitary glycoprotein hormones (THYROTROPIN; FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE; LUTEINIZING HORMONE) and the placental CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Within a species, the alpha subunits of these four hormones are identical; the distinct functional characteristics of these glycoprotein hormones are determined by the unique beta subunits. Both subunits, the non-covalently bound heterodimers, are required for full biologic activity.

Year introduced: 1989

5.

Placental Hormones

Hormones produced by the placenta include CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN as well as steroids (ESTROGENS; PROGESTERONE), and neuropeptide hormones similar to those found in the hypothalamus (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES).

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Pituitary Hormones

Hormones secreted by the PITUITARY GLAND including those from the anterior lobe (adenohypophysis), the posterior lobe (neurohypophysis), and the ill-defined intermediate lobe. Structurally, they include small peptides, proteins, and glycoproteins. They are under the regulation of neural signals (NEUROTRANSMITTERS) or neuroendocrine signals (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) from the hypothalamus as well as feedback from their targets such as ADRENAL CORTEX HORMONES; ANDROGENS; ESTROGENS.

Year introduced: 1972

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Hypothalamic Hormones

Peptide hormones produced by NEURONS of various regions in the HYPOTHALAMUS. They are released into the pituitary portal circulation to stimulate or inhibit PITUITARY GLAND functions. VASOPRESSIN and OXYTOCIN, though produced in the hypothalamus, are not included here for they are transported down the AXONS to the POSTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY before being released into the portal circulation.

Year introduced: 1979

8.

Gonadal Steroid Hormones

Steroid hormones produced by the GONADS. They stimulate reproductive organs, germ cell maturation, and the secondary sex characteristics in the males and the females. The major sex steroid hormones include ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; and TESTOSTERONE.

Year introduced: 2004 (1963)

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Pituitary Hormone-Releasing Hormones

Peptides, natural or synthetic, that stimulate the release of PITUITARY HORMONES. They were first isolated from the extracts of the HYPOTHALAMUS; MEDIAN EMINENCE; PITUITARY STALK; and NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. In addition, some hypophysiotropic hormones control pituitary cell differentiation, cell proliferation, and hormone synthesis. Some can act on more than one pituitary hormone.

Year introduced: 1991

10.

Pituitary Hormone Release Inhibiting Hormones

Polypeptide hormones produced in the hypothalamus which inhibit the release of pituitary hormones. Used for PHRIH in general or for which there is no specific heading.

Year introduced: 1975

11.

Invertebrate Hormones

Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.

Year introduced: 1967

12.

Insect Hormones

Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.

Year introduced: 1977(1975)

13.

Hormones, Ectopic

Hormones released from neoplasms or from other cells that are not the usual sources of hormones.

Year introduced: 1968

14.

Peptide Hormones

Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.

Year introduced: 2003

15.

Thyroid Hormones

Natural hormones secreted by the THYROID GLAND, such as THYROXINE, and their synthetic analogs.

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Thymus Hormones

Humoral factors secreted by the thymus gland. They participate in the development of the lymphoid system and the maturation of the cellular immune response.

Year introduced: 1977

17.

Testicular Hormones

Hormones produced in the testis.

Year introduced: 1975

18.

Pituitary Hormones, Posterior

Hormones released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). They include a number of peptides which are formed in the NEURONS in the HYPOTHALAMUS, bound to NEUROPHYSINS, and stored in the nerve terminals in the posterior pituitary. Upon stimulation, these peptides are released into the hypophysial portal vessel blood.

Year introduced: PITUITRIN was heading 1975-1995 (see under PITUITARY HORMONES, POSTERIOR 1975-1990)

19.

Pituitary Hormones, Anterior

Hormones secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Structurally, they include polypeptide, protein, and glycoprotein molecules.

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Pancreatic Hormones

Peptide hormones secreted into the blood by cells in the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS of the pancreas. The alpha cells secrete glucagon; the beta cells secrete insulin; the delta cells secrete somatostatin; and the PP cells secrete pancreatic polypeptide.

Year introduced: 1974

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