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The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)


genetics [Subheading]

Used for mechanisms of heredity and the genetics of organisms, for the genetic basis of normal and pathologic states, and for the genetic aspects of endogenous chemicals. It includes biochemical and molecular influence on genetic material.

Year introduced: 1978


Reverse Genetics

The use of techniques that produce a functional MUTATION or an effect on GENE EXPRESSION of a specific gene of interest in order to identify the role or activity of the gene product of that gene.

Year introduced: 2012


Forensic Genetics

The application of genetic analyses and MOLECULAR DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES to legal matters and crime analysis.

Year introduced: 2007


Antisense Elements (Genetics)

Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.

Year introduced: 1991


SOS Response, Genetics

An error-prone mechanism or set of functions for repairing damaged microbial DNA. SOS functions (a concept reputedly derived from the SOS of the international distress signal) are involved in DNA repair and mutagenesis, in cell division inhibition, in recovery of normal physiological conditions after DNA repair, and possibly in cell death when DNA damage is extensive.

Year introduced: 2020 (1991)


Radiation Genetics

A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.


Genetics, Population

The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.

Year introduced: 1966


Genetics, Microbial

A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic mechanisms and processes of microorganisms.

Year introduced: 1968


Genetics, Medical

A subdiscipline of human genetics which entails the reliable prediction of certain human disorders as a function of the lineage and/or genetic makeup of an individual or of any two parents or potential parents.

Year introduced: 1980


Genetics, Behavioral

The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.

Year introduced: 1968


Human Genetics

The scientific study of inherited human variation.

Year introduced: 2018


Molecular Biology

A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.

Year introduced: 1970(1968)



The study of the relationship between NUTRITIONAL PHYSIOLOGY and genetic makeup. It includes the effect of different food components on GENE EXPRESSION and how variations in GENES effect responses to food components.

Year introduced: 2008


Physical Chromosome Mapping

Mapping of the linear order of genes on a chromosome with units indicating their distances by using methods other than genetic recombination. These methods include nucleotide sequencing, overlapping deletions in polytene chromosomes, and electron micrography of heteroduplex DNA. (From King and Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 5th ed)

Year introduced: 1999


Sex Determination Processes

The mechanisms by which the SEX of an individual's GONADS are fixed.

Year introduced: 2011 (1998)


Polymorphism, Genetic

The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

Year introduced: 2005(1968)


Dosage Compensation, Genetic

Genetic mechanisms that allow GENES to be expressed at a similar level irrespective of their GENE DOSAGE. This term is usually used in discussing genes that lie on the SEX CHROMOSOMES. Because the sex chromosomes are only partially homologous, there is a different copy number, i.e., dosage, of these genes in males vs. females. In DROSOPHILA, dosage compensation is accomplished by hypertranscription of genes located on the X CHROMOSOME. In mammals, dosage compensation of X chromosome genes is accomplished by random X CHROMOSOME INACTIVATION of one of the two X chromosomes in the female.

Year introduced: 2006 (1982)


Genetic Speciation

The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.

Year introduced: 2006


Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid

Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.

Year introduced: 1988

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