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1.

Ethics

The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.

2.

ethics [Subheading]

Used with techniques and activities for discussion and analysis with respect to human and social values.

Year introduced: 2003

3.

Ethics, Business

The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.

Year introduced: 2003

4.

Ethics Consultation

Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.

Year introduced: 2003

5.

Ethics, Research

The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.

Year introduced: 2003

6.

Codes of Ethics

Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.

Year introduced: 2003

7.

Ethics Committees, Research

Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.

Year introduced: 2002

8.

Ethics Committees, Clinical

Hospital or other institutional ethics committees established to consider the ethical dimensions of patient care. Distinguish from ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH, which are established to monitor the welfare of patients or healthy volunteers participating in research studies.

Year introduced: 2002

9.

Principle-Based Ethics

An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.

Year introduced: 2002

10.

Ethics, Clinical

The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)

Year introduced: 2002

11.

Ethics Committees

Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.

Year introduced: 1992

12.

Ethics, Professional

The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Year introduced: 1968

13.

Ethics, Pharmacy

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the pharmacist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the pharmacist in health care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Year introduced: 1968

14.

Ethics, Nursing

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of nurses themselves, their patients, and their fellow practitioners, as well as their actions in the care of patients and in relations with their families.

15.

Ethics, Medical

The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.

16.

Ethics, Institutional

The moral and ethical obligations or responsibilities of institutions.

Year introduced: 1991(Aug 1977)

17.

Ethics, Dental

The principles of proper professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the dentist, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the dentist in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

18.

Animal Care Committees

Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).

Year introduced: 2003

19.

Ethical Theory

A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)

Year introduced: 2002

20.

Bioethics

A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.

Year introduced: 1978

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