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Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.

Year introduced: 1966


Chromatography, Reverse-Phase

A chromatography technique in which the stationary phase is composed of a non-polar substance with a polar mobile phase, in contrast to normal-phase chromatography in which the stationary phase is a polar substance with a non-polar mobile phase.

Year introduced: 2010


Chromatography, Supercritical Fluid

A CHROMATOGRAPHY method using supercritical fluid, usually carbon dioxide under very high pressure (around 73 atmospheres or 1070 psi at room temperature) as the mobile phase. Other solvents are sometimes added as modifiers. This is used both for analytical (SFC) and extraction (SFE) purposes.

Year introduced: 2002


Chromatography, Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary

A hybrid separation technique combining both chromatographic and electrophoretic separation principles. While the method was invented to separate neutral species, it can also be applied to charged molecules such as small peptides.

Year introduced: 1999


Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.

Year introduced: 2007 (1976)


Chromatography, Thin Layer

Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Year introduced: 1966


Chromatography, Paper

An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).

Year introduced: 1966


Chromatography, Liquid

Chromatographic techniques in which the mobile phase is a liquid.

Year introduced: 1976


Chromatography, Ion Exchange

Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.

Year introduced: 1966


Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid

Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.

Year introduced: 1981


Chromatography, Gel

Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.

Year introduced: 1976


Chromatography, Gas

Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.

Year introduced: 1966


Chromatography, DEAE-Cellulose

A type of ion exchange chromatography using diethylaminoethyl cellulose (DEAE-CELLULOSE) as a positively charged resin. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Year introduced: 1970


Chromatography, Agarose

A method of gel filtration chromatography using agarose, the non-ionic component of agar, for the separation of compounds with molecular weights up to several million.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Chromatography, Affinity

A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules, often ANTIBODIES, to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Year introduced: 1974(1972)


Tandem Affinity Purification

A technique used to isolate specific interacting partners of MACROMOLECULAR COMPLEXES that have been assembled with a tagged component (bait) that interacts with other partners in the complex. The interacting bait component is labeled with a dual-affinity tag that allows for capture of the complex by IMMUNOPRECIPITATION, followed by purification of only the partners of the complex interacting with the bait by affinity chromatography.

Year introduced: 2019


Countercurrent Distribution

A method of separation of two or more substances by repeated distribution between two immiscible liquid phases that move past each other in opposite directions. It is a form of liquid-liquid chromatography. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Year introduced: 1967(1964)

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