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Cell Death

The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.

Year introduced: 1992


Programmed Cell Death 1 Ligand 2 Protein

A costimulatory B7 antigen that has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 RECEPTOR. It is closely-related to CD274 antigen; however, its expression is restricted to DENDRITIC CELLS and activated MACROPHAGES.

Year introduced: 2012(2001)


Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor

An inhibitory T-lymphocyte receptor that has specificity for CD274 ANTIGEN and PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 LIGAND 2 PROTEIN. Signaling by the receptor limits T cell proliferation and INTERFERON GAMMA synthesis. The receptor also may play an essential role in the regulatory pathway that induces PERIPHERAL TOLERANCE.

Year introduced: 2012


Cell Death Reversal

Recovery of cells from one of the activated pathways of regulated cell death.

Year introduced: 2022


Autophagic Cell Death

A major activation of the autophagic pathway, characterized by massive accumulation of AUTOPHAGOSOMES and CELL DEATH.

Year introduced: 2020


Immunogenic Cell Death

A form of regulated cell death that results in release of specific DAMAGE ASSOCIATED MOLECULAR PATTERN MOLECULES which activate an ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSE. It can be initiated in any type of cell by a restricted set of stimuli, including viral infection, some chemotherapeutics or immunogenic radiation therapy.

Year introduced: 2020


Regulated Cell Death

Genetically encoded mechanisms in multicellular and unicellular eukaryotes that function to eliminate cells that are superfluous either during development, or to maintain tissue and organism homeostasis; and cells that are irreversibly damaged, abnormal, and/or potentially harmful.

Year introduced: 2020



A type of regulated cell death initiated by hyperactivation of POLY (ADP-RIBOSE) POLYMERASE-1 (PARP-1) as a consequence of DNA DAMAGE; OXIDATIVE STRESS; HYPOXIA; HYPOGLYCEMIA; or INFLAMMATION. This leads to DNA FRAGMENTATION and CHROMATIN condensation.

Year introduced: 2020



Type of programmed cell death associated with infection by intracellular pathogens. It is characterized by INFLAMMASOME formation; activation of CASPASE 1; and CYTOKINES mediated inflammation.

Year introduced: 2016



A regulated cell death mechanism characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, including the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA, at regularly spaced, internucleosomal sites, i.e., DNA FRAGMENTATION. It is genetically programmed and serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.

Year introduced: 1993


B7-H1 Antigen

An inhibitory B7 antigen that contains V-type and C2 type immunoglobulin domains. It has specificity for the T-CELL receptor PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH 1 PROTEIN and provides negative signals that control and inhibit T-cell responses. It is found at higher than normal levels on tumor cells, suggesting its potential role in TUMOR IMMUNE EVASION.

Year introduced: 2018 (2007)


bcl-Associated Death Protein

A pro-apoptotic protein and member of the Bcl-2 protein family that is regulated by PHOSPHORYLATION. Unphosphorylated Bad protein inhibits the activity of BCL-XL PROTEIN.

Year introduced: 2006(1995)


Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins

A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.

Year introduced: 2006


pdcd4b protein, zebrafish [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_198978

Date introduced: June 24, 2013


CDIP1 protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_013399

Date introduced: September 20, 2007


BAD protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_032989

Date introduced: July 29, 2005


badb protein, zebrafish [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_001270595

Date introduced: July 29, 2005


Bex3 protein, rat [Supplementary Concept]

binds the cell-death domain of p75NTR; a signaling adaptor protein involved in p75NTR-mediated apoptosis; RefSeq NM_053401

Date introduced: August 6, 2004


DAD1P1 protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NR_024064

Date introduced: June 16, 2000


PDCD6IP protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_013374

Date introduced: February 9, 1999

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