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One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.


Synthetic Biology

A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.

Year introduced: 2011


Freshwater Biology

The study of life and ECOLOGIC SYSTEMS in bodies of FRESHWATER.

Year introduced: 2010


Systems Biology

Comprehensive, methodical analysis of complex biological systems by monitoring responses to perturbations of biological processes. Large scale, computerized collection and analysis of the data are used to develop and test models of biological systems.

Year introduced: 2005


Computational Biology

A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.

Year introduced: 1997


Developmental Biology

The field of BIOLOGY which deals with the process of the GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT of an organism.

Year introduced: 1990


Molecular Biology

A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.

Year introduced: 1970(1968)


Marine Biology

The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of organisms which inhabit the OCEANS AND SEAS.


Cell Biology

The study of the structure, behavior, growth, reproduction, and pathology of cells; and the function and chemistry of cellular components.

Year introduced: 2010 (1984)



The study of biological materials or systems subjected to temperatures below their normal range.

Year introduced: 2018



The study of aquatic life inhabiting bodies of water, including growth, morphology, physiology, genetics, distribution, and interactions with other organisms and the environment. It includes MARINE HYDROBIOLOGY.

Year introduced: 2010



The interdisciplinary science that studies evolutionary biology, including the origin and evolution of the major elements required for life, their processing in the interstellar medium and in protostellar systems. This field also includes the study of chemical evolution and the subsequent interactions between evolving biota and planetary evolution as well as the field of biology that deals with the study of extraterrestrial life.

Year introduced: 1995



Study of the scientific principles, mechanisms, and effects of the interaction of ionizing radiation with living matter. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)

Year introduced: 1966


Databases, Nucleic Acid

Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.

Year introduced: 2002

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