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Acute or chronic inflammation of JOINTS.


National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (U.S.)

Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It supports research into the causes, treatment, and prevention of arthritis and musculoskeletal and skin diseases; the training of basic and clinical scientists to carry out this research; and the dissemination of information on research progress. It was established in 1986.

Year introduced: 2008


Arthritis, Reactive

An aseptic, inflammatory arthritis developing secondary to a primary extra-articular infection, most typically of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or UROGENITAL SYSTEM. The initiating trigger pathogens are usually SHIGELLA; SALMONELLA; YERSINIA; CAMPYLOBACTER; or CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS. Reactive arthritis is strongly associated with HLA-B27 ANTIGEN.

Year introduced: 1992


Arthritis-Encephalitis Virus, Caprine

A species of LENTIVIRUS, subgenus ovine-caprine lentiviruses (LENTIVIRUSES, OVINE-CAPRINE), closely related to VISNA-MAEDI VIRUS and causing acute encephalomyelitis; chronic arthritis; PNEUMONIA; MASTITIS; and GLOMERULONEPHRITIS in goats. It is transmitted mainly in the colostrum and milk.

Year introduced: 1994


Arthritis, Psoriatic

A type of inflammatory arthritis associated with PSORIASIS, often involving the axial joints and the peripheral terminal interphalangeal joints. It is characterized by the presence of HLA-B27-associated SPONDYLARTHROPATHY, and the absence of rheumatoid factor.

Year introduced: 1990


Arthritis, Gouty

Arthritis, especially of the great toe, as a result of gout. Acute gouty arthritis often is precipitated by trauma, infection, surgery, etc. The initial attacks are usually monoarticular but later attacks are often polyarticular. Acute and chronic gouty arthritis are associated with accumulation of MONOSODIUM URATE in and around affected joints.

Year introduced: 1990


Arthritis, Rheumatoid

A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.


Arthritis, Juvenile

Arthritis in children, with onset before 16 years of age. The terms juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) and juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) refer to classification systems for chronic arthritis in children. Only one subtype of juvenile arthritis (polyarticular-onset, rheumatoid factor-positive) clinically resembles adult rheumatoid arthritis and is considered its childhood equivalent.


Arthritis, Infectious


Year introduced: 1965


Arthritis, Experimental

ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.

Year introduced: 1991(1977)


Rheumatic Fever

A febrile disease occurring as a delayed sequela of infections with STREPTOCOCCUS PYOGENES. It is characterized by multiple focal inflammatory lesions of the connective tissue structures, such as the heart, blood vessels, and joints (POLYARTHRITIS) and brain, and by the presence of ASCHOFF BODIES in the myocardium and skin.


Pyogenic arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and acne [Supplementary Concept]

A hereditary autosomal dominant disorder characterized by pyogenic (infectious) arthritis, pyoderma gangrenosum, and severe cystic acne. Onset is in childhood; pyoderma gangrenosum; and severe cystic acne occur in adolescence and beyond. Other less common features may include adult-onset DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE I; PROTEINURIA, ABSCESS formation at the site of parenteral injections, and cytopenias attributable to SULFONAMIDE medications. Mutations in the PSTPIP1 gene have been identified. OMIM: 604416

Date introduced: August 25, 2010


Crystal Arthropathies

Joint disorders that are characterized by accumulation of microcrystals in and around the joint including in the SYNOVIAL FLUID. They are classified according to the chemical nature of the crystals such as CALCIUM PYROPHOSPHATE; basic CALCIUM PHOSPHATES; and monosodium urate (see URIC ACID).

Year introduced: 2017



Inflammation of the joints of the SPINE, the intervertebral articulations.

Year introduced: 2002



A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.


Lyme Disease

An infectious disease caused by a spirochete, BORRELIA BURGDORFERI, which is transmitted chiefly by Ixodes dammini (see IXODES) and pacificus ticks in the United States and Ixodes ricinis (see IXODES) in Europe. It is a disease with early and late cutaneous manifestations plus involvement of the nervous system, heart, eye, and joints in variable combinations. The disease was formerly known as Lyme arthritis and first discovered at Old Lyme, Connecticut.

Year introduced: 1985


Rheumatoid Arthritis, Systemic Juvenile [Supplementary Concept]

A type of arthritis that occurs among some patients affected by juvenile chronic, or idiopathic, arthritis and characterized by severe extraarticular symptoms that include a spiking fever with a corresponding increase in the serum levels of INTERLEUKIN-6, UVEITIS; LYMPHADENOPATHY; HEPATOSPLENOMEGALY; SEROSITIS and MYALGIA. Polymorphisms in the IL6 and MIF genes are associated with susceptibility to this disorder. OMIM: 604302

Date introduced: November 5, 2012


Arthritis, Sacroiliac [Supplementary Concept]

Arthritis affecting the sacroiliac joint. Some patients may also have kidney disease and swelling of hands and feet. May be hereditary (autosomal dominant). OMIM: 108100

Date introduced: November 5, 2012


Blau syndrome [Supplementary Concept]

A rare hereditary disorder with autosomal dominant inheritance that is characterized by SKIN RASH; ARTHRITIS; and UVEITIS. Onset is typically in children under four years of age. SYNOVITIS, anterior UVEITIS, adhesion of the IRIS to the CORNEA, and permanent bending of the fingers and toes (camptodactyly) may also occur. A mutation in the NOD2 gene has been identified. OMIM: 186580

Date introduced: August 25, 2010

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