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Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard oxidation reactions. They counteract the damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.


Preservatives, Pharmaceutical

Substances added to pharmaceutical preparations to protect them from chemical change or microbial action. They include ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS and antioxidants.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity

A measure of the ability of a substance, such as a food, to quench oxygen free radicals in vitro.

Year introduced: 2017



Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).

Year introduced: 1992



A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).


Food Preservatives

Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.

Year introduced: 1975


Antioxidant Response Elements

Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.

Year introduced: 2013



A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.

Year introduced: 2002


Latex Hypersensitivity

Allergic reaction to products containing processed natural rubber latex such as rubber gloves, condoms, catheters, dental dams, balloons, and sporting equipment. Both T-cell mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, DELAYED) and IgE antibody-mediated (HYPERSENSITIVITY, IMMEDIATE) allergic responses are possible. Delayed hypersensitivity results from exposure to antioxidants present in the rubber; immediate hypersensitivity results from exposure to a latex protein.

Year introduced: 2002



A trans-carotenoid pigment widely distributed in nature. The compound is used as an oral suntanning agent and as a food and drug coloring agent. Oral ingestion of the compound causes canthaxanthin retinopathy.

Year introduced: 1992


Pharmaceutic Aids

Substances which are of little or no therapeutic value, but are necessary in the manufacture, compounding, storage, etc., of pharmaceutical preparations or drug dosage forms. They include SOLVENTS, diluting agents, and suspending agents, and emulsifying agents. Also, ANTIOXIDANTS; PRESERVATIVES, PHARMACEUTICAL; COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; VEHICLES; EXCIPIENTS; OINTMENT BASES.

Year introduced: 1968



Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.

Year introduced: 1973(1972)


Lipid Peroxides

Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.

Year introduced: 1980


Food Additives

Substances used in the processing or storage of foods or animal feed including ANTIOXIDANTS; FOOD PRESERVATIVES; FOOD COLORING AGENTS; FLAVORING AGENTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; EXCIPIENTS and other similarly used substances. Many of the same substances are used as PHARMACEUTIC AIDS.


daidzein-7-O-alpha-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-4)-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside [Supplementary Concept]

antioxidants from Tongmai granules (extracts of three herbs Puerariae Lobatae Radix, Salviae Miltiorrhizae Radix et Rhizoma, and Chuanxiong Rhizoma); structure in first source

Date introduced: June 3, 2011


chromium peroxide [Supplementary Concept]

a blue oxidant used in spectrophotometric detection of antioxidants

Date introduced: October 12, 2009


Mangifera indica extract [Supplementary Concept]

standard aqueous extract from the stem bark of Mangifera indica L., used in Cuba as antioxidants & NSAIDs under the brand name of Vimang

Date introduced: June 17, 2005


Per1 protein, Arabidopsis [Supplementary Concept]

is similar to the 1-cysteine peroxiredoxin family of antioxidants; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank X94218

Date introduced: April 8, 1998


PER1 protein, Hordeum vulgare [Supplementary Concept]

has high similarity to a thiol-requiring antioxidants, named peroxiredoxins; has been sequenced; GenBank X96551

Date introduced: December 13, 1996

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