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  • The following term was not found in MeSH: 44PE.

Statistics, Nonparametric

A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)

Year introduced: 1995


SUM-1 protein, S pombe [Supplementary Concept]

a WD-repeat protein; amino acid sequence in first source; GenBank Y09529

Date introduced: June 25, 1998



The state that distinguishes organisms from inorganic matter, manifested by growth, metabolism, reproduction, and adaptation. It includes the course of existence, the sum of experiences, the mode of existing, or the fact of being. Over the centuries inquiries into the nature of life have crossed the boundaries from philosophy to biology, forensic medicine, anthropology, etc., in creative as well as scientific literature. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)

Year introduced: 1997



The body of truths or facts accumulated in the course of time, the cumulated sum of information, its volume and nature, in any civilization, period, or country.

Year introduced: 1997


Least-Squares Analysis

A principle of estimation in which the estimates of a set of parameters in a statistical model are those quantities minimizing the sum of squared differences between the observed values of a dependent variable and the values predicted by the model.

Year introduced: 1991(1990)


Chi-Square Distribution

A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.

Year introduced: 1990



The sum or the stock of words used by a language, a group, or an individual. (From Webster, 3d ed)


Thyroid Function Tests

Blood tests used to evaluate the functioning of the thyroid gland.

Year introduced: 1977,1963-1967


Nursing Process

The sum total of nursing activities which includes assessment (identifying needs), intervention (ministering to needs), and evaluation (validating the effectiveness of the help given).

Year introduced: 1980


Molecular Weight

The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.

Year introduced: 1967(1964)


Insurance, Life

Insurance providing for payment of a stipulated sum to a designated beneficiary upon death of the insured.


Insurance, Health, Reimbursement

Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)

Year introduced: 1982


Inspiratory Capacity

The maximum volume of air that can be inspired after reaching the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the TIDAL VOLUME and the INSPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is IC.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Gestalt Theory

A system which emphasizes that experience and behavior contain basic patterns and relationships which cannot be reduced to simpler components; that is, the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


General Adaptation Syndrome

The sum of all nonspecific systemic reactions of the body to long-continued exposure to systemic stress.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Functional Residual Capacity

The volume of air remaining in the LUNGS at the end of a normal, quiet expiration. It is the sum of the RESIDUAL VOLUME and the EXPIRATORY RESERVE VOLUME. Common abbreviation is FRC.

Year introduced: 1991(1975)


Consumer Product Safety

The sum total of measures taken and regulatory policies enacted to ensure the safe use of consumer products.

Year introduced: 1982



In current usage, approximately equivalent to personality. The sum of the relatively fixed personality traits and habitual modes of response of an individual.


Blood Volume

Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.

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