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A malignant neoplasm derived from cells that are capable of forming melanin, which may occur in the skin of any part of the body, in the eye, or, rarely, in the mucous membranes of the genitalia, anus, oral cavity, or other sites. It occurs mostly in adults and may originate de novo or from a pigmented nevus or malignant lentigo. Melanomas frequently metastasize widely, and the regional lymph nodes, liver, lungs, and brain are likely to be involved. The incidence of malignant skin melanomas is rising rapidly in all parts of the world. (Stedman, 25th ed; from Rook et al., Textbook of Dermatology, 4th ed, p2445)


gp100 Melanoma Antigen

A melanosome-associated protein that plays a role in the maturation of the MELANOSOME.

Year introduced: 2011


Melanoma-Specific Antigens

Cellular antigens that are specific for MELANOMA cells.

Year introduced: 2011


Melanoma, Amelanotic

An unpigmented malignant melanoma. It is an anaplastic melanoma consisting of cells derived from melanoblasts but not forming melanin. (Dorland, 27th ed; Stedman, 25th ed)

Year introduced: 1994


Melanoma, Experimental

Experimentally induced tumor that produces MELANIN in animals to provide a model for studying human MELANOMA.

Year introduced: 1987


Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Ocular

Ocular manifestations secondary to various NEOPLASMS in which antibodies to antigens of the primary tumor cross-react with ocular antigens. This autoimmune response often leads to visual loss and other ocular dysfunctions.

Year introduced: 2012


Melanoma astrocytoma syndrome [Supplementary Concept]

Familial proneness to melanoma and nervous system tumors

Date introduced: August 25, 2010


Sarcoma, Clear Cell

A sarcoma of young adults occurring in the lower extremities and acral regions. It is found intimately bound to tendons as a circumscribed but unencapsulated melanin-bearing tumor of neuroectodermal origin. Clear cell sarcoma is associated with a specific t(12;22)(q13;q12) translocation.

Year introduced: 1994


Melanoma, Cutaneous Malignant [Supplementary Concept]

A primary melanoma that originates from atypical skin MELANOCYTES, especially from acquired and congenital MELANOCYTIC NEVI, and DYSPLASTIC NEVI. Different histologic types include superficial spreading melanoma, acral lentiginous melanoma, nodular melanoma, and lentigo maligna melanoma. Germline mutations in CDKN2A, CDK4, MC1R, and XRCC3 genes, and somatic mutations in BRAF, BAP1, GRIN2A, STK11, and PTEN genes have been identified. OMIM: 155600

Date introduced: November 5, 2012


Uveal melanoma [Supplementary Concept]

A melanoma that originates from uveal MELANOCYTES and is the most common primary intraocular malignancy. Tumors consist of four cell types: epitheloid, intermediate, mixed, and spindle. Somatic mutations in BAP1, GNAQ, GNA11, EIF1AX, and SF3B1 genes have been identified. OMIM: 155720

Date introduced: August 25, 2010


melanoma-associated cell surface protein, 55-kDa, human [Supplementary Concept]

Mr 55,000 surface protein implicated in melanoma progression; plays a functionally important role in determining metastasis

Date introduced: June 17, 2002


CSPG4 protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_001897

Date introduced: October 22, 1996


Mia protein, rat [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_030852

Date introduced: June 18, 1996


Tetraspanin 30

Ubiquitously-expressed tetraspanin protein that is found in late ENDOSOMES and LYSOSOMES. It functions in intracellular protein transport and signaling.

Year introduced: 2018 (1990)


MART-1 Antigen

A melanosome-specific protein that plays a role in the expression, stability, trafficking, and processing of GP100 MELANOMA ANTIGEN, which is critical to the formation of Stage II MELANOSOMES. The protein is used as an antigen marker for MELANOMA cells.

Year introduced: 2011



Intracellular signaling adaptor proteins that play a role in the coupling of SYNDECANS to CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS.

Year introduced: 2007


Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome

Clinically atypical nevi (usually exceeding 5 mm in diameter and having variable pigmentation and ill defined borders) with an increased risk for development of non-familial cutaneous malignant melanoma. Biopsies show melanocytic dysplasia. Nevi are clinically and histologically identical to the precursor lesions for melanoma in the B-K mole syndrome. (Stedman, 25th ed)

Year introduced: 1987

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