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Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.

Year introduced: 1990


HaCaT Cells

A spontaneously transformed human epithelial cell line developed from a long-term primary culture of human adult skin KERATINOCYTES. As it maintains an epidermal differentiation capacity, it has been used as a model for keratinization studies. (From:J Cell Biol. 1988 Mar;106(3):761-71.)

Year introduced: 2021


IGSF8 protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

EWI-2wint lacks N-terminal segment; RefSeq NM_052868

Date introduced: December 1, 2001


TMEM123 protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

RefSeq NM_052932

Date introduced: September 14, 2001


PERP protein, human [Supplementary Concept]

a tumor supressor gene composed of 193 aa, exhibits four transmembrane domains; amino acid sequence in first source; RefSeq NM_022121

Date introduced: December 4, 2000


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