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1.

Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 2, Group C, Member 2

An orphan nuclear receptor that has specificity for hormone response elements found in the promoters of target genes. It binds DNA either as a homodimer or as heterodimer with the closely-related orphan nuclear receptor NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY 2, GROUP C, MEMBER 1. The protein was originally identified as a TESTES-specific protein and is involved in the regulation of variety of cellular processes, including CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS.

Year introduced: 2010

2.

Nuclear Receptor Subfamily 2, Group C, Member 1

A DNA-binding orphan nuclear receptor that has specificity for directly repeated (DR) AGGTCA sequences. It binds DNA as either as a homodimer or as a heterodimer with the closely-related orphan nuclear receptor NUCLEAR RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY 2, GROUP C, MEMBER 2. The protein was originally identified as a PROSTATE-specific protein and is involved in the regulation of variety of cellular processes, including CELL DIFFERENTIATION; CELL PROLIFERATION; and APOPTOSIS.

Year introduced: 2010(1995)

3.

Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2

Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.

Year introduced: 1997

4.

Proto-Oncogene Protein c-ets-2

A ubiquitously expressed ets proto-oncogene protein that may play a role in regulation of CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.

Year introduced: 2006(1990)

5.

Genes, bcl-2

The B-cell leukemia/lymphoma-2 genes, responsible for blocking apoptosis in normal cells, and associated with follicular lymphoma when overexpressed. Overexpression results from the t(14;18) translocation. The human c-bcl-2 gene is located at 18q24 on the long arm of chromosome 18.

Year introduced: 1997

6.

Genes, erbB-2

The erbB-2 gene is a proto-oncogene that codes for the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTOR, ERBB-2), a protein with structural features similar to the epidermal growth factor receptor. Its name originates from the viral oncogene homolog (v-erbB) which is a truncated form of the chicken erbB gene found in the avian erythroblastosis virus. Overexpression and amplification of the gene is associated with a significant number of adenocarcinomas. The human c-erbB-2 gene is located at 17q21.2.

Year introduced: 1995

7.

Apolipoprotein C-III

A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS and CHYLOMICRON REMNANTS. Apo C-III, synthesized in the liver, is an inhibitor of LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE. Apo C-III modulates the binding of chylomicron remnants and VLDL to receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) thus decreases the uptake of triglyceride-rich particles by the liver cells and subsequent degradation. The normal Apo C-III is glycosylated. There are several polymorphic forms with varying amounts of SIALIC ACID (Apo C-III-0, Apo C-III-1, and Apo C-III-2).

Year introduced: 2007

8.

Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk

Signal transducing adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and play a role in CYTOSKELETON reorganization. c-crk protein is closely related to ONCOGENE PROTEIN V-CRK and includes several alternatively spliced isoforms.

Year introduced: 2006(1990)

9.

Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase

A key enzyme in SPHINGOLIPIDS biosynthesis, this enzyme catalyzes the pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent condensation of L-SERINE and PALMITOYL COENZYME A to 3-dehydro-D-sphinganine. The enzyme consists of two different subunits.

Year introduced: 2006(1984)

10.

Sodium-Coupled Vitamin C Transporters

Membrane transport proteins that actively co-transport ASCORBIC ACID and sodium ions across the CELL MEMBRANE. Dietary absorption of VITAMIN C is highly dependent upon this class of transporters and a subset of SODIUM GLUCOSE TRANSPORTERS which transport the oxidized form of vitamin C, DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.

Year introduced: 2012(1999)

11.

Receptor, ErbB-2

A cell surface protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is overexpressed in a variety of ADENOCARCINOMAS. It has extensive homology to and heterodimerizes with the EGF RECEPTOR, the ERBB-3 RECEPTOR, and the ERBB-4 RECEPTOR. Activation of the erbB-2 receptor occurs through heterodimer formation with a ligand-bound erbB receptor family member.

Year introduced: 2019 (1995)

12.

Phospholipase C gamma

A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is primarily regulated by PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES. It is structurally related to PHOSPHOLIPASE C DELTA with the addition of SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS and pleckstrin homology domains located between two halves of the CATALYTIC DOMAIN.

Year introduced: 2006(1994)

13.

NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C

A subclass of NK cell lectin-like receptors that associates with members of NK CELL LECTIN-LIKE RECEPTOR SUBFAMILY D to form heterodimeric receptors for HLA-E antigen.

Year introduced: 2009

14.

Apolipoprotein C-II

A 9-kDa protein component of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS. It contains a cofactor for LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE and activates several triacylglycerol lipases. The association of Apo C-II with plasma CHYLOMICRONS; VLDL, and HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS is reversible and changes rapidly as a function of triglyceride metabolism. Clinically, Apo C-II deficiency is similar to lipoprotein lipase deficiency (HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE I) and is therefore called hyperlipoproteinemia type IB.

Year introduced: 2007

15.

Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mdm2

An E3 UBIQUITIN LIGASE that interacts with and inhibits TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53. Its ability to ubiquitinate p53 is regulated by TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P14ARF.

Year introduced: 2006(1991)

16.

bcl-2-Associated X Protein

A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.

Year introduced: 2006(1993)

17.

Acetyl-CoA C-Acyltransferase

Enzyme that catalyzes the final step of fatty acid oxidation in which ACETYL COA is released and the CoA ester of a fatty acid two carbons shorter is formed.

Year introduced: 1998(1975)

18.

Bcl-2-Like Protein 11

A BCL-2-like protein that has a C-terminal BCL-2 homology (BH3) domain and forms heterodimers with other BCL-2 FAMILY PROTEINS. It is a strong inducer of APOPTOSIS and ANOIKIS; several isoforms are expressed (BimEL, Bim L, Bim-alpha, Bim-s; and Bim-gamma) that have different potencies for inducing apoptosis.

Year introduced: 2017 (1998)

19.

Protein Kinase C beta

PKC beta encodes two proteins (PKCB1 and PKCBII) generated by alternative splicing of C-terminal exons. It is widely distributed with wide-ranging roles in processes such as B-cell receptor regulation, oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, androgen receptor-dependent transcriptional regulation, insulin signaling, and endothelial cell proliferation.

Year introduced: 2014

20.

Phospholipase C delta

A phosphoinositide phospholipase C subtype that is structurally defined by the presence of an N-terminal pleckstrin-homology and EF-hand domains, a central catalytic domain, and a C-terminal calcium-dependent membrane-binding domain.

Year introduced: 2008(1978)

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