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1.

Thrombocythemia 1

Thrombocythemia, or thrombocytosis, is a myeloproliferative disorder characterized by excessive platelet production resulting in increased numbers of circulating platelets. Thrombocythemia can be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic episodes and occasional leukemic transformation (summary by Wiestner et al., 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Thrombocythemia THCYT2 (601977) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the THPO receptor gene (MPL; 159530) on chromosome 1p34; THCYT3 (614521) is caused by germline or somatic mutation in the JAK2 gene (147796) on chromosome 9p; and a possible X-linked form (THCYTX; 300331) has been reported. Somatic mutations in the TET2 (612839), ASXL1 (612990), SH2B3 (605093), and SF3B1 (605590) genes have also been found in cases of essential thrombocythemia. Somatic mutation in the CALR gene (109091) occurs in approximately 70% of essential thrombocythemia patients who lack JAK2 and MPL mutations (Klampfl et al., 2013; Nangalia et al., 2013). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
479301
Concept ID:
C3277671
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Familial erythrocytosis, 1

Primary familial and congenital polycythemia (PFCP) is characterized by isolated erythrocytosis in an individual with a normal-sized spleen and absence of disorders causing secondary erythrocytosis. Clinical manifestations relate to the erythrocytosis and can include plethora, the hyperviscosity syndrome (headache, dizziness, fatigue, lassitude, visual and auditory disturbances, paresthesia, myalgia), altered mental status caused by hypoperfusion and local hypoxia, and arterial and/or venous thromboembolic events. Although the majority of individuals with PFCP have only mild manifestations of hyperviscosity such as dizziness or headache, some affected individuals have had severe and even fatal complications including arterial hypertension, intracerebral hemorrhage, deep vein thrombosis, coronary disease, and myocardial infarction. To date 116 affected individuals from 24 families have been reported. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
343583
Concept ID:
C1851490
3.

Myelofibrosis

Primary myelofibrosis is a condition characterized by the buildup of scar tissue (fibrosis) in the bone marrow, the tissue that produces blood cells. Because of the fibrosis, the bone marrow is unable to make enough normal blood cells. The shortage of blood cells causes many of the signs and symptoms of primary myelofibrosis.Initially, most people with primary myelofibrosis have no signs or symptoms. Eventually, fibrosis can lead to a reduction in the number of red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A shortage of red blood cells (anemia) often causes extreme tiredness (fatigue) or shortness of breath. A loss of white blood cells can lead to an increased number of infections, and a reduction of platelets can cause easy bleeding or bruising.Because blood cell formation (hematopoiesis) in the bone marrow is disrupted, other organs such as the spleen or liver may begin to produce blood cells. This process, called extramedullary hematopoiesis, often leads to an enlarged spleen (splenomegaly) or an enlarged liver (hepatomegaly). People with splenomegaly may feel pain or fullness in the abdomen, especially below the ribs on the left side. Other common signs and symptoms of primary myelofibrosis include fever, night sweats, and bone pain.Primary myelofibrosis is most commonly diagnosed in people aged 50 to 80 but can occur at any age.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
7929
Concept ID:
C0001815
Neoplastic Process
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