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1.

Dendritic cell, monocyte, B lymphocyte, and natural killer lymphocyte deficiency

This primary immunodeficiency, designated IMD21, DCML, or MONOMAC, is characterized by profoundly decreased or absent monocytes, B lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) lymphocytes, and circulating and tissue dendritic cells (DCs), with little or no effect on T-cell numbers. Clinical features of IMD21 are variable and include susceptibility to disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, papillomavirus infections, opportunistic fungal infections, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Bone marrow hypocellularity and dysplasia of myeloid, erythroid, and megakaryocytic lineages are present in most patients, as are karyotypic abnormalities, including monosomy 7 and trisomy 8. In the absence of cytogenetic abnormalities or overt dysplasia, hypoplastic bone marrow may initially be diagnosed as aplastic anemia. Bone marrow transplantation is the only cure. Some patients may have an increased risk of miscarriage. Both autosomal dominant transmission and sporadic cases occur. Less common manifestations of GATA2 deficiency include lymphedema and sensorineural hearing loss, a phenotype usually termed 'Emberger syndrome' (614038) (summary by Bigley et al. (2011), Hsu et al. (2011), and Spinner et al. (2014)). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
481660
Concept ID:
C3280030
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Acute myeloid leukemia

CEBPA-associated familial acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is defined as AML in which a heterozygous germline CEBPA pathogenic variant is present in a family in which multiple individuals have AML. In contrast, sporadic CEBPA-associated AML is defined as AML in which a CEBPA pathogenic variant(s) is identified in leukemic cells but not in the non-leukemic cells. Too few individuals with CEBPA-associated familial AML have been reported to be certain about the natural history of the disease. In the majority of individuals, the age of onset of familial AML appears to be earlier than sporadic AML; disease onset has been reported in persons as young as age 1.8 years and older than age 45 years. The prognosis of CEBPA-associated familial AML appears to be favorable compared with sporadic CEBPA-associated AML. Individuals with CEBPA-associated familial AML who have been cured of their initial disease may be at greater risk of developing additional independent leukemic episodes in addition to the risk of relapse due to preexisting clones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9730
Concept ID:
C0023467
Neoplastic Process
3.

Myelodysplastic syndrome

Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal hematologic stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis resulting in low blood counts, most commonly anemia, and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML; 601626). Blood smears and bone marrow biopsies show dysplastic changes in myeloid cells, with abnormal proliferation and differentiation of 1 or more lineages (erythroid, myeloid, megakaryocytic). MDS can be subdivided into several categories based on morphologic characteristics, such as low-grade refractory anemia (RA) or high-grade refractory anemia with excess blasts (RAEB). Bone marrow biopsies of some patients show ringed sideroblasts (RARS), which reflects abnormal iron staining in mitochondria surrounding the nucleus of erythrocyte progenitors (summary by Delhommeau et al., 2009 and Papaemmanuil et al., 2011). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
483005
Concept ID:
C3463824
Neoplastic Process
4.

Lymphedema, primary, with myelodysplasia

MedGen UID:
481294
Concept ID:
C3279664
Disease or Syndrome
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