Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 97

  • Wrong UID 504476
1.

Azorean disease

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including a dystonic-rigid syndrome, a parkinsonian syndrome, or a combined syndrome of dystonia and peripheral neuropathy. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disease progresses. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome

Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is a growth disorder variably characterized by neonatal hypoglycemia, macrosomia, macroglossia, hemihyperplasia, omphalocele, embryonal tumors (e.g., Wilms tumor, hepatoblastoma, neuroblastoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma), visceromegaly, adrenocortical cytomegaly, renal abnormalities (e.g., medullary dysplasia, nephrocalcinosis, medullary sponge kidney, and nephromegaly), and ear creases/pits. BWS is considered a clinical spectrum, in which affected individuals may have many of these features or may have only one or two clinical features. Early death may occur from complications of prematurity, hypoglycemia, cardiomyopathy, macroglossia, or tumors. However, the previously reported mortality of 20% is likely an overestimate given better recognition of the disorder along with enhanced treatment options. Macroglossia and macrosomia are generally present at birth but may have postnatal onset. Growth rate slows around age seven to eight years. Hemihyperplasia may affect segmental regions of the body or selected organs and tissues. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
2562
Concept ID:
C0004903
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
3.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal; however, height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Obesity may occur in childhood or adolescence. IQ scores range from 25 to 79; average IQ is between 36 and 51. Other variable findings are coloboma, cataract, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, and cryptorchidism. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
48517
Concept ID:
C0035934
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
4.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 1

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections) and skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus). Approximately 75% of affected individuals have LDS type I with craniofacial manifestations (widely spaced eyes, bifid uvula/cleft palate, craniosynostosis); approximately 25% have LDS type II with systemic manifestations of LDSI but minimal or absent craniofacial features. LDSI and LDSII form a clinical continuum. The natural history of LDS is characterized by aggressive arterial aneurysms (mean age at death 26.1 years) and a high incidence of pregnancy-related complications, including death and uterine rupture. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
395828
Concept ID:
C2697933
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Loeys-Dietz syndrome 2

Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is characterized by vascular findings (cerebral, thoracic, and abdominal arterial aneurysms and/or dissections) and skeletal manifestations (pectus excavatum or pectus carinatum, scoliosis, joint laxity, arachnodactyly, talipes equinovarus). Approximately 75% of affected individuals have LDS type I with craniofacial manifestations (widely spaced eyes, bifid uvula/cleft palate, craniosynostosis); approximately 25% have LDS type II with systemic manifestations of LDSI but minimal or absent craniofacial features. LDSI and LDSII form a clinical continuum. The natural history of LDS is characterized by aggressive arterial aneurysms (mean age at death 26.1 years) and a high incidence of pregnancy-related complications, including death and uterine rupture. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
390653
Concept ID:
C2674876
Disease or Syndrome
6.

4p partial monosomy syndrome

Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS) is characterized by typical craniofacial features in infancy consisting of ‘Greek warrior helmet’ appearance of the nose (wide bridge of the nose continuing to the forehead), microcephaly, high anterior hairline with prominent glabella, widely spaced eyes, epicanthus, highly arched eyebrows, short philtrum, downturned corners of the mouth, micrognathia, and poorly formed ears with pits/tags. All affected individuals have prenatal-onset growth deficiency followed by postnatal growth retardation and hypotonia with muscle underdevelopment. Developmental delay/intellectual disability of variable degree is present in all. Seizures occur in 90% to 100% of children with WHS. Other findings include skeletal anomalies (60%-70%), congenital heart defects (~50%), hearing loss (mostly conductive) (>40%), urinary tract malformations (25%), and structural brain abnormalities (33%). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
408255
Concept ID:
C1956097
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Mandibuloacral dysostosis

Mandibuloacral dysplasia with type A lipodystrophy (MADA) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by growth retardation, craniofacial anomalies with mandibular hypoplasia, skeletal abnormalities with progressive osteolysis of the distal phalanges and clavicles, and pigmentary skin changes. The lipodystrophy is characterized by a marked acral loss of fatty tissue with normal or increased fatty tissue in the neck and trunk. Some patients may show progeroid features. Metabolic complications can arise due to insulin resistance and diabetes (Young et al., 1971; Simha and Garg, 2002; summary by Garavelli et al., 2009). See also MAD type B (MADB; 608612), which is caused by mutation in the ZMPSTE24 gene (606480). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
98485
Concept ID:
C0432291
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
8.

Melnick-Needles syndrome

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
6292
Concept ID:
C0025237
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Tetralogy of Fallot

Critical congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a term that refers to a group of serious heart defects that are present from birth. These abnormalities result from problems with the formation of one or more parts of the heart during the early stages of embryonic development. CCHD prevents the heart from pumping blood effectively or reduces the amount of oxygen in the blood. As a result, organs and tissues throughout the body do not receive enough oxygen, which can lead to organ damage and life-threatening complications. Individuals with CCHD usually require surgery soon after birth.Although babies with CCHD may appear healthy for the first few hours or days of life, signs and symptoms soon become apparent. These can include an abnormal heart sound during a heartbeat (heart murmur), rapid breathing (tachypnea), low blood pressure (hypotension), low levels of oxygen in the blood (hypoxemia), and a blue or purple tint to the skin caused by a shortage of oxygen (cyanosis). If untreated, CCHD can lead to shock, coma, and death. However, most people with CCHD now survive past infancy due to improvements in early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.Some people with treated CCHD have few related health problems later in life. However, long-term effects of CCHD can include delayed development and reduced stamina during exercise. Adults with these heart defects have an increased risk of abnormal heart rhythms, heart failure, sudden cardiac arrest, stroke, and premature death.Each of the heart defects associated with CCHD affects the flow of blood into, out of, or through the heart. Some of the heart defects involve structures within the heart itself, such as the two lower chambers of the heart (the ventricles) or the valves that control blood flow through the heart. Others affect the structure of the large blood vessels leading into and out of the heart (including the aorta and pulmonary artery). Still others involve a combination of these structural abnormalities.People with CCHD have one or more specific heart defects. The heart defects classified as CCHD include coarctation of the aorta, double-outlet right ventricle, D-transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, interrupted aortic arch, pulmonary atresia with intact septum, single ventricle, total anomalous pulmonary venous connection, tetralogy of Fallot, tricuspid atresia, and truncus arteriosus.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
21498
Concept ID:
C0039685
Congenital Abnormality
10.

Autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B

EFEMP2-related cutis laxa, or autosomal recessive cutis laxa type 1B (ARCL1B), is characterized by cutis laxa and systemic involvement, most commonly arterial tortuosity, aneurysms, and stenosis; retrognathia; joint laxity; and arachnodactyly. Severity ranges from perinatal lethality as a result of cardiopulmonary failure to manifestations limited to the vascular and craniofacial systems. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482428
Concept ID:
C3280798
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Kniest dysplasia

Kniest dysplasia is a disorder of bone growth characterized by short stature (dwarfism) with other skeletal abnormalities and problems with vision and hearing.People with Kniest dysplasia are born with a short trunk and shortened arms and legs. Adult height ranges from 42 inches to 58 inches. Affected individuals have abnormally large joints that can cause pain and restrict movement, limiting physical activity. These joint problems can also lead to arthritis. Other skeletal features may include a rounded upper back that also curves to the side (kyphoscoliosis), severely flattened bones of the spine (platyspondyly), dumbbell-shaped bones in the arms and legs, long and knobby fingers, and an inward- and upward-turning foot (clubfoot).Individuals with Kniest dysplasia have a round, flat face with bulging and wide-set eyes. Some affected infants are born with an opening in the roof of the mouth called a cleft palate. Infants may also have breathing problems due to weakness of the windpipe. Severe nearsightedness (myopia) and other eye problems are common in Kniest dysplasia. Some eye problems, such as tearing of the back lining of the eye (retinal detachment), can lead to blindness. Hearing loss resulting from recurrent ear infections is also possible.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
75559
Concept ID:
C0265279
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
12.

Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans

The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
394201
Concept ID:
C2677099
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
13.

Robinow syndrome, autosomal recessive

ROR2-related Robinow syndrome is characterized by distinctive craniofacial features, skeletal abnormalities, and other anomalies. Craniofacial features include macrocephaly, broad prominent forehead, low-set ears, ocular hypertelorism, prominent eyes, midface hypoplasia, short upturned nose with depressed nasal bridge and flared nostrils, large and triangular mouth with exposed incisors and upper gums, gum hypertrophy, misaligned teeth, ankyloglossia, and micrognathia. Skeletal abnormalities include short stature with growth retardation, mesomelic or acromesomelic limb shortening, hemivertebrae with fusion of thoracic vertebrae, and brachydactyly. Other common features include micropenis with or without cryptorchidism in males and reduced clitoral size and hypoplasia of the labia majora in females, renal tract abnormalities, and nail hypoplasia or dystrophy. The disorder is recognizable at birth or in early childhood. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
341431
Concept ID:
C1849334
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome type 3

Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is primarily an eye disorder, although it can also affect other parts of the body. This condition is characterized by abnormalities of the front part of the eye, an area known as the anterior segment. For example, the colored part of the eye (the iris), may be thin or poorly developed. The iris normally has a single central hole, called the pupil, through which light enters the eye. People with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome often have a pupil that is off-center (corectopia) or extra holes in the iris that can look like multiple pupils (polycoria). This condition can also cause abnormalities of the cornea, which is the clear front covering of the eye.About half of affected individuals develop glaucoma, a serious condition that increases pressure inside the eye. When glaucoma occurs with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome, it most often develops in late childhood or adolescence, although it can occur as early as infancy. Glaucoma can cause vision loss or blindness.The signs and symptoms of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome can also affect other parts of the body. Many affected individuals have distinctive facial features such as widely spaced eyes (hypertelorism); a flattened mid-face with a broad, flat nasal bridge; and a prominent forehead. The condition is also associated with dental abnormalities including unusually small teeth (microdontia) or fewer than normal teeth (oligodontia). Some people with Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome have extra folds of skin around their belly button (redundant periumbilical skin). Other, less common features can include heart defects, the opening of the urethra on the underside of the penis (hypospadias), narrowing of the anus (anal stenosis), and abnormalities of the pituitary gland that can result in slow growth.Researchers have described at least three types of Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome. The types, which are numbered 1 through 3, are distinguished by their genetic cause.
[from GHR]

MedGen UID:
394534
Concept ID:
C2678503
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Pena-Shokeir syndrome type I

The fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) refers to a clinically and genetically heterogeneous constellation of features including fetal akinesia, intrauterine growth retardation, arthrogryposis, and developmental anomalies, including lung hypoplasia, cleft palate, and cryptorchidism (Vogt et al., 2009). It shows phenotypic overlap with the lethal form of multiple pterygium syndrome (see 253290). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
220903
Concept ID:
C1276035
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
16.

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 4B

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
116092
Concept ID:
C0239849
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
17.

De Lange syndrome

Classic Cornelia de Lange syndrome (CdLS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, growth retardation (prenatal onset; <5th centile throughout life), hirsutism, and upper limb reduction defects that range from subtle phalangeal abnormalities to oligodactyly (missing digits). Craniofacial features include synophrys, highly arched eyebrows, long eyelashes, short nose with anteverted nares, small widely spaced teeth, and microcephaly. IQ ranges from below 30 to 102 (mean: 53). Many individuals demonstrate autistic and self-destructive tendencies. Frequent findings include cardiac septal defects, gastrointestinal dysfunction, hearing loss, myopia, and cryptorchidism or hypoplastic genitalia. Individuals with a milder phenotype have less severe growth, cognitive, and limb involvement, but often have facial features consistent with CdLS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
78752
Concept ID:
C0270972
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
18.

Diaphyseal dysplasia

Camurati-Engelmann disease (CED) is characterized by hyperostosis of the long bones and the skull, proximal muscle weakness, severe limb pain, a wide-based, waddling gait, and joint contractures. Facial features such as frontal bossing, enlargement of the mandible, proptosis, and cranial nerve impingement resulting in facial palsy are seen in severely affected individuals later in life. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
4268
Concept ID:
C0011989
Disease or Syndrome; Finding
19.

Cutis Gyrata syndrome of Beare and Stevenson

The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
377668
Concept ID:
C1852406
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
20.

Antley-Bixler syndrome without genital anomalies or disordered steroidogenesis

Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency is a disorder of steroidogenesis with a phenotypic spectrum ranging from cortisol deficiency at the milder end to classic Antley-Bixler syndrome (ABS) at the severe end. Cortisol deficiency can range from clinically insignificant to life threatening; manifestations can include ambiguous genitalia in both males and females; primary amenorrhea and enlarged cystic ovaries in females; poor masculinization during puberty in males; and maternal virilization during pregnancy with an affected fetus. Manifestations of ABS include craniosynostosis; hydrocephalus; distinctive facies; choanal stenosis or atresia; low-set dysplastic ears with stenotic external auditory canals; skeletal anomalies (radiohumeral synostosis, neonatal fractures, congenital bowing of the long bones, joint contractures, arachnodactyly, clubfeet); renal anomalies (ectopic kidneys, duplication of the kidneys, renal hypoplasia, horseshoe kidney, hydronephrosis); and reduction of cognitive function and developmental delay. In moderate POR deficiency, craniofacial and skeletal anomalies are less severe than in ABS. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
422448
Concept ID:
C2936791
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center