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  • Wrong UID 505159
1.

Waardenburg syndrome type 1

Waardenburg syndrome type I (WS1) is an auditory-pigmentary disorder comprising congenital sensorineural hearing loss and pigmentary disturbances of the iris, hair, and skin, along with dystopia canthorum (lateral displacement of the inner canthi). The hearing loss in WS1, observed in approximately 60% of affected individuals, is congenital, typically non-progressive, either unilateral or bilateral, and sensorineural. Most commonly, hearing loss in WS1 is bilateral and profound (>100 dB). The majority of individuals with WS1 have either a white forelock or early graying of the scalp hair before age 30 years. The classic white forelock observed in approximately 45% of individuals is the most common hair pigmentation anomaly seen in WS1. Affected individuals may have complete heterochromia iridium, partial/segmental heterochromia, or hypoplastic or brilliant blue irides. Congenital leukoderma is frequently seen on the face, trunk, or limbs. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
376211
Concept ID:
C1847800
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Dyskeratosis congenita X-linked

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Dyskeratosis congenita autosomal dominant

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
338831
Concept ID:
C1851970
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Waardenburg syndrome type 2A

Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is an autosomal dominant auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi, which is seen in some other forms of WS (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Waardenburg syndrome type 1 (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type 2 (WS2) is distinguished from type 1 by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type 3 (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 2 Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is a genetically heterogeneous disorder. WS2B (600193) has been mapped to chromosome 1p, WS2C (606662) has been mapped to chromosome 8p23, WSD (608890) is caused by mutation in the SNAI2 gene (602150) on chromosome 8q11, and WS2E (611584) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
349786
Concept ID:
C1860339
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome

Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS) is characterized by poikiloderma; sparse hair, eyelashes, and/or eyebrows; small stature; skeletal and dental abnormalities; cataracts; and an increased risk for cancer, especially osteosarcoma. The skin is typically normal at birth; the rash of RTS develops between age three and six months as erythema, swelling, and blistering on the face and subsequently spreads to the buttocks and extremities. The rash evolves over months to years into the chronic pattern of reticulated hypo- and hyperpigmentation, punctate atrophy, and telangiectasias, collectively known as poikiloderma. Hyperkeratotic lesions occur in approximately one third of individuals. Skeletal abnormalities include radial ray defects, ulnar defects, absent or hypoplastic patella, and osteopenia. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
10819
Concept ID:
C0032339
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Waardenburg syndrome type 4A

Waardenburg syndrome type 4 (WS4), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes, congenital sensorineural hearing loss, and Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 4A is caused by mutation in the EDNRB gene (131244). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III (WS3; 148820) has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type 4 has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). Genetic Heterogeneity of Waardenburg Syndrome Type 4 Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is genetically heterogeneous. WS4B (613265) is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242) on chromosome 20q13, and WS4C (613266) is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229) on chromosome 22q13. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
341244
Concept ID:
C1848519
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Branchiooculofacial syndrome

The branchiooculofacial syndrome (BOFS) is characterized by: branchial (cervical [90%] or infra- or supra-auricular [60%]) skin defects that range from barely perceptible thin skin or hair patch to erythematous “hemangiomatous” lesions to large weeping erosions; ocular anomalies that can include microphthalmia, anophthalmia, coloboma, and nasolacrimal duct stenosis/atresia; and facial anomalies that can include ocular hypertelorism or telecanthus, broad nasal tip, upslanted palpebral fissures, cleft lip or prominent philtral pillars that give the appearance of a repaired cleft lip (formerly called "pseudocleft lip") with or without cleft palate, upper lip pits and lower facial weakness (asymmetric crying face or partial 7(th) cranial nerve weakness). Malformed and prominent pinnae and hearing loss from inner ear and/or petrous bone anomalies are common. Intellect is usually normal. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
91261
Concept ID:
C0376524
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Klein-Waardenberg syndrome

Waardenburg syndrome type 3 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; presence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the ocular inner canthi; and upper limb abnormalities (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). WS type 3 is also referred to as 'Klein-Waardenburg syndrome' (Gorlin et al., 1976). Clinical Variability of Waardenburg Syndrome Types 1-4 Waardenburg syndrome has been classified into 4 main phenotypes. Type I Waardenburg syndrome (WS1; 193500) is characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, including a white forelock and premature graying; pigmentary changes of the iris, such as heterochromia iridis and brilliant blue eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and 'dystopia canthorum.' WS type II (WS2) is distinguished from type I by the absence of dystopia canthorum. WS type III has dystopia canthorum and is distinguished by the presence of upper limb abnormalities. WS type IV (WS4; 277580), also known as Waardenburg-Shah syndrome, has the additional feature of Hirschsprung disease (reviews by Read and Newton, 1997 and Pingault et al., 2010). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
449531
Concept ID:
C0342680
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant, 2

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
462793
Concept ID:
C3151443
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Waardenburg syndrome type 4B

Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4B is caused by mutation in the EDN3 gene (131242). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
412961
Concept ID:
C2750457
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Dyskeratosis congenita, autosomal dominant, 3

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
462795
Concept ID:
C3151445
Disease or Syndrome
13.

5p partial monosomy syndrome

Cri-du-chat syndrome was first described by Lejeune et al. (1963) as a hereditary congenital syndrome associated with deletion of part of the short arm of chromosome 5. The deletions can vary in size from extremely small and involving only band 5p15.2 to the entire short arm. Although the majority of deletions arise as new mutations, approximately 12% result from unbalanced segregation of translocations or recombination involving a pericentric inversion in one of the parents. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
41345
Concept ID:
C0010314
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Waardenburg syndrome type 4C

Waardenburg syndrome type 4 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the eye, deafness, and Hirschsprung disease (review by Read and Newton, 1997). WS type 4C is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229). WS type 4 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS4A; 277580). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS2 (193510), and WS3 (148820). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
413310
Concept ID:
C2750452
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Waardenburg syndrome type 2E

Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (review by Read and Newton, 1997). Individuals with WS type 2E, which is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229), may have neurologic abnormalities, including mental impairment, myelination defects, and ataxia. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
398476
Concept ID:
C2700405
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 1

Shortened telomeres can cause a wide variety of clinical features that constitute a phenotypic spectrum. The most severe form is dyskeratosis congenita (see, e.g., 127750), characterized by early childhood onset of skin abnormalities, bone marrow failure, predisposition to malignancy, and risk of pulmonary and hepatic fibrosis. Adult-onset pulmonary fibrosis is the most common manifestation of mutant telomerase genes. Other manifestations include aplastic anemia due to bone marrow failure, hepatic fibrosis, and increased cancer risk, particularly myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Phenotype, age at onset, and severity are determined by telomere length, not just telomerase mutation (summary by Armanios, 2009). The genetic diagnosis of telomere-related bone marrow failure and pulmonary fibrosis has implications for treatment because affected individuals generally do not respond to immunosuppression and may be at increased risk for fatal complications after bone marrow or lung transplantation (Parry et al., 2011). Genetic Heterogeneity of Telomere-Related Pulmonary Fibrosis and/or Bone Marrow Failure Also see PFBMFT2 (614743), caused by mutation in the TERC gene (602322) on chromosome 3q; PFBMFT3 (616373), caused by mutation in the RTEL1 gene (608833) on chromosome 20q13; and PFBMFT4 (616371), caused by mutation in the PARN gene (604212) on chromosome 16p13. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
766531
Concept ID:
C3553617
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 2

MedGen UID:
766536
Concept ID:
C3553622
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma

Diaphyseal medullary stenosis with malignant fibrous histiocytoma is an autosomal dominant bone dysplasia characterized by pathologic fractures due to abnormal cortical growth and diaphyseal medullary stenosis. The fractures heal poorly, and there is progressive bowing of the lower extremities. In 2 families, affected individuals also showed a limb-girdle myopathy, with muscle weakness and atrophy. Approximately 35% of affected individuals develop an aggressive form of bone sarcoma consistent with malignant fibrous histiocytoma or osteosarcoma. Thus, the disorder may be considered a tumor predisposition syndrome (summary by Camacho-Vanegas et al., 2012). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
350613
Concept ID:
C1862177
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Waardenburg syndrome type 2B

Waardenburg syndrome type II (WS2) is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (Hughes et al., 1994). WS type 2B (WS2B) maps to chromosome 1p. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
373973
Concept ID:
C1838447
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Pulmonary fibrosis and/or bone marrow failure, telomere-related, 4

MedGen UID:
903928
Concept ID:
C4225347
Disease or Syndrome
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