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  • Wrong UID 505194
1.

Familial dysautonomia

Familial dysautonomia (FD) affects the development and survival of sensory, sympathetic, and parasympathetic neurons. It is a debilitating disease present from birth. Neuronal degeneration progresses throughout life. Affected individuals have gastrointestinal dysfunction, vomiting crises, recurrent pneumonia, altered sensitivity to pain and temperature perception, and cardiovascular instability. About 40% of individuals have autonomic crises. Hypotonia contributes to delay in acquisition of motor milestones. Older individuals often have a broad-based and ataxic gait that deteriorates over time. Life expectancy is decreased. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
41678
Concept ID:
C0013364
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
2.

Williams syndrome

Williams syndrome (WS) is characterized by cardiovascular disease (elastin arteriopathy, peripheral pulmonary stenosis, supravalvar aortic stenosis, hypertension), distinctive facies, connective tissue abnormalities, intellectual disability (usually mild), a specific cognitive profile, unique personality characteristics, growth abnormalities, and endocrine abnormalities (hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, hypothyroidism, and early puberty). Feeding difficulties often lead to poor weight gain in infancy. Hypotonia and hyperextensible joints can result in delayed attainment of motor milestones. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
59799
Concept ID:
C0175702
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Adrenoleukodystrophy

X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) affects the nervous system white matter and the adrenal cortex. Three main phenotypes are seen in affected males: The childhood cerebral form manifests most commonly between ages four and eight years. It initially resembles attention deficit disorder or hyperactivity; progressive impairment of cognition, behavior, vision, hearing, and motor function follow the initial symptoms and often lead to total disability within two years. Adrenomyeloneuropathy (AMN) manifests most commonly in the late twenties as progressive paraparesis, sphincter disturbances, sexual dysfunction, and often, impaired adrenocortical function; all symptoms are progressive over decades. "Addison disease only" presents with primary adrenocortical insufficiency between age two years and adulthood and most commonly by age 7.5 years, without evidence of neurologic abnormality; however, some degree of neurologic disability (most commonly AMN) usually develops later. Approximately 20% of females who are carriers develop neurologic manifestations that resemble AMN but have later onset (age =35 years) and milder disease than do affected males. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
57667
Concept ID:
C0162309
Disease or Syndrome
4.

X-linked hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy X type 1 (CMTX1) is characterized by a moderate to severe motor and sensory neuropathy in affected males and usually mild to no symptoms in carrier females. Sensorineural deafness and central nervous system symptoms also occur in some families. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
98290
Concept ID:
C0393808
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Homocysteinemia due to MTHFR deficiency

Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency is a common inborn error of folate metabolism. The phenotypic spectrum ranges from severe neurologic deterioration and early death to asymptomatic adults. In the classic form, both thermostable and thermolabile enzyme variants have been identified (Rosenblatt et al., 1992). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
383829
Concept ID:
C1856058
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Multiple sclerosis susceptibility 1

MedGen UID:
358269
Concept ID:
C1868685
Finding
7.

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome

Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) is characterized by distinctive facial features which become more apparent with age (100%), developmental delay/intellectual disability (100%), and episodic hyperventilation and/or breath-holding while awake (55%-60%). Global developmental delays are significant and intellectual disability is moderate to severe: mean age of walking is four to six years; most affected individuals are nonverbal. Other common findings are behavioral issues, hand stereotypic movements, seizures (40%-50%), constipation, and severe myopia. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
370910
Concept ID:
C1970431
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 10

SCA10 is characterized by slowly progressive cerebellar ataxia that usually starts as poor balance and unsteady gait, followed by upper-limb ataxia, scanning dysarthria, and dysphagia. The disease is exclusively found in Latin American populations, particularly those with Amerindian admixture. Abnormal tracking eye movements are common. Recurrent seizures after the onset of gait ataxia have been reported with variable frequencies among different families. Some individuals have cognitive dysfunction, behavioral disturbances, mood disorders, mild pyramidal signs, and peripheral neuropathy. Onset ranges from age 12 to 48 years. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
369786
Concept ID:
C1963674
Disease or Syndrome
9.

METHYLMALONIC ACIDURIA AND HOMOCYSTINURIA, cblF TYPE

The clinical manifestations of disorders of intracellular cobalamin metabolism can be highly variable even within a single complementation group. The prototype and best understood is cblC; it is also the most common of these disorders. The age of initial presentation of cblC spans a wide range, including: Newborns, who can have intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) and microcephaly; Infants, who can have poor feeding, failure to thrive, pallor, and neurologic signs, and occasionally hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and/or seizures including infantile spasms; Toddlers, who can have failure to thrive, poor head growth, cytopenias (including megaloblastic anemia), global developmental delay, encephalopathy, and neurologic signs such as hypotonia and seizures; and Adolescents and adults, who can have neuropsychiatric symptoms, progressive cognitive decline, and/or subacute combined degeneration of the spinal cord. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
336373
Concept ID:
C1848578
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 8

SCA8 is a slowly progressive ataxia with disease onset typically occurring in adulthood. Onset ranges from age one to 73 years. The progression is typically over decades regardless of the age of onset. Common initial symptoms are scanning dysarthria with a characteristic drawn-out slowness of speech and gait instability; life span is typically not shortened. Some individuals present with nystagmus, dysmetric saccades and, rarely, ophthalmoplegia. Tendon reflex hyperreflexity and extensor plantar responses are present in some severely affected individuals. Life span is typically not shortened. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
332457
Concept ID:
C1837454
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 5

The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155705
Concept ID:
C0752123
Disease or Syndrome
12.

MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, SUSCEPTIBILITY TO, 1

MedGen UID:
854774
Concept ID:
C3888106
Finding
13.

Impairment of oral perception

MedGen UID:
376745
Concept ID:
C1850269
Finding
14.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 36

SCA36 is a slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by adult-onset gait ataxia, eye movement abnormalities, tongue fasciculations, and variable upper motor neuron signs. Some affected individuals may develop hearing loss (summary by Garcia-Murias et al., 2012). For a general discussion of autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia, see SCA1 (164400). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
483339
Concept ID:
C3472711
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Huntington disease-like 1

Genetic prion diseases generally manifest with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). The order of appearance and/or predominance of these features and other associated neurologic and psychiatric findings vary. Familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (fCJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome, and fatal familial insomnia (FFI) represent the core phenotypes of genetic prion disease. Note: A fourth clinical phenotype, known as Huntington disease like-1 (HDL-1) has been proposed, but this is based on a single report, and the underlying pathologic features would categorize it as GSS. Although it is clear that these four subtypes display overlapping clinical and pathologic features, recognition of these phenotypes can be useful when providing affected individuals and their families with information about the expected clinical course. The age at onset ranges from the third to ninth decade of life. The course ranges from a few months to several years (typically 5-7 years; in rare instances, >10 years). [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
355137
Concept ID:
C1864112
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 26

The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373077
Concept ID:
C1836395
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 35

The hereditary ataxias are a group of genetic disorders characterized by slowly progressive incoordination of gait and often associated with poor coordination of hands, speech, and eye movements. Frequently, atrophy of the cerebellum occurs. In this GeneReview the hereditary ataxias are categorized by mode of inheritance and gene (or chromosome locus) in which pathogenic variants occur. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
854733
Concept ID:
C3888031
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Friedreich ataxia 2

Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive gait and limb ataxia with associated limb muscle weakness, absent lower limb reflexes, extensor plantar responses, dysarthria, and decreased vibratory sense and proprioception. Onset is usually in the first or second decade, before the end of puberty (summary by Delatycki et al., 2000). For a general phenotypic description of Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), see FRDA1 (229300), which is caused by mutation in the FXN gene (606829) on chromosome 9q13. [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
356134
Concept ID:
C1865981
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency, nuclear type 2

Mitochondrial complex III deficiency nuclear type 2 is an autosomal recessive severe neurodegenerative disorder that usually presents in childhood, but may show later onset, even in adulthood. Affected individuals have motor disability, with ataxia, apraxia, dystonia, and dysarthria, associated with necrotic lesions throughout the brain. Most patients also have cognitive impairment and axonal neuropathy and become severely disabled later in life (summary by Ghezzi et al., 2011). The disorder may present clinically as spinocerebellar ataxia or Leigh syndrome, or with psychiatric disturbances (Morino et al., 2014; Atwal, 2014; Nogueira et al., 2013). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of mitochondrial complex III deficiency, see MC3DN1 (124000). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
767519
Concept ID:
C3554605
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency 15

MedGen UID:
767096
Concept ID:
C3554182
Disease or Syndrome
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