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  • Wrong UID 504684
1.

Hypohidrotic X-linked ectodermal dysplasia

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
57890
Concept ID:
C0162359
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis 1

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) encompasses several forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis. Although most neonates with ARCI are collodion babies, the clinical presentation and severity of ARCI may vary significantly, ranging from harlequin ichthyosis, the most severe and often fatal form, to lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and (nonbullous) congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (CIE). These phenotypes are now recognized to fall on a continuum; however, the phenotypic descriptions are clinically useful for clarification of prognosis and management. Infants with harlequin ichthyosis are usually born prematurely and are encased in thick, hard, armor-like plates of cornified skin that severely restrict movement. Life-threatening complications in the immediate postnatal period include respiratory distress, feeding problems, and systemic infection. Collodion babies are born with a taut, shiny, translucent or opaque membrane that encases the entire body and lasts for days to weeks. LI and CIE are seemingly distinct phenotypes: classic, severe LI with dark brown, plate-like scale with no erythroderma and CIE with finer whiter scale and underlying generalized redness of the skin. Affected individuals with severe involvement can have ectropion, eclabium, scarring alopecia involving the scalp and eyebrows, and palmar and plantar keratoderma. Besides these major forms of nonsyndromic ichthyosis, a few rare subtypes have been recognized, such as bathing suit ichthyosis, self-improving collodion ichthyosis, or ichthyosis-prematurity syndrome. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
760723
Concept ID:
C3536797
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
3.

Autosomal recessive hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia syndrome

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
96067
Concept ID:
C0406702
Congenital Abnormality
4.

Tetraamelia with ectodermal dysplasia and lacrimal duct abnormalities

MedGen UID:
413568
Concept ID:
C2749282
5.

Autosomal dominant hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia

Hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (HED) is characterized by hypotrichosis (sparseness of scalp and body hair), hypohidrosis (reduced ability to sweat), and hypodontia (congenital absence of teeth). The cardinal features of classic HED become obvious during childhood. The scalp hair is thin, lightly pigmented, and slow-growing. Sweating, although present, is greatly deficient, leading to episodes of hyperthermia until the affected individual or family acquires experience with environmental modifications to control temperature. Only a few abnormally formed teeth erupt, and at a later-than-average age. Physical growth and psychomotor development are otherwise within normal limits. Mild HED is characterized by mild manifestations of any or all the characteristic features. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
314095
Concept ID:
C1720965
Congenital Abnormality
6.

Trichoodontoonychial dysplasia

MedGen UID:
376429
Concept ID:
C1848744
7.

Hypotrichosis 8

Hypotrichosis simplex refers to a group of hereditary isolated alopecias characterized by diffuse and progressive hair loss, usually beginning in early childhood (Pasternack et al., 2008). Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis (LAH) is characterized by fragile hairs that break easily, leaving short, sparse scalp hairs. The disorder affects the trunk and extremities as well as the scalp, and the eyebrows and eyelashes may also be involved, whereas beard, pubic, and axillary hairs are largely spared. In addition, patients can develop hyperkeratotic follicular papules, erythema, and pruritus in affected areas (summary by Schaffer et al., 2006). Woolly hair (WH) refers to a group of hair shaft disorders that are characterized by fine and tightly curled hair. Compared to normal curly hair that is observed in some populations, WH grows slowly and stops growing after a few inches. Under light microscopy, WH shows some structural anomalies, including trichorrhexis nodosa and tapered ends (summary by Petukhova et al., 2009). Several families have been reported in which some affected individuals exhibit features of hypotrichosis and others have woolly scalp hair (Khan et al., 2011). Woolly hair is also a feature of several syndromes, such as Naxos disease (601214) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndrome (115150) (Petukhova et al., 2009), or the palmoplantar keratoderma and cardiomyopathy syndrome (601214) (Carvajal-Huerta, 1998). Genetic Heterogeneity of Hypotrichosis and Woolly Hair For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of nonsyndromic hypotrichosis, see HYPT1 (605389). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of localized hypotrichosis, see LAH1 (HYPT6; 607903). Another form of autosomal recessive woolly hair with or without hypotrichosis (ARWH2; 604379) is caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) and is allelic to autosomal recessive localized hypotrichosis (LAH2). ARWH3 (616760) is caused by mutation in the KRT25 gene (616646) on chromosome 17q21. An autosomal dominant form of woolly hair with hypotrichosis (HYPT13; 615896) is caused by mutation in the KRT71 gene (608245) on chromosome 12q13. Another autosomal dominant form of woolly hair (ADWH; 194300) with normal hair density is caused by mutation in the KRT74 gene (608248) on chromosome 12q13, and is allelic to an autosomal dominant form of hypotrichosis simplex of the scalp (HYPT3; 613981) as well as an ectodermal dysplasia of the hair/nail type (ECTD7; 614929). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
341227
Concept ID:
C1848435
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Beaded hair

Individuals with monilethrix have normal hair at birth, but within the first few months of life develop fragile, brittle hair that tends to fracture and produce varying degrees of dystrophic alopecia. In the mildest forms, only the occipital regions of the scalp are involved; however, in severe forms the eyebrows, eyelashes, and secondary sexual hair may also be involved. Follicular hyperkeratosis with predilection for the scalp, nape of neck, and extensor surfaces of the upper arm and thighs is also a characteristic finding in these patients. Light microscopic examination is diagnostic and reveals elliptical nodes of normal thickness and intermittent constrictions (internodes) at which the hair easily breaks. There may be spontaneous improvement with time, especially during puberty and pregnancy, but the condition never resolves completely (summary by Zlotogorski et al., 2006). An autosomal recessive form of monilethrix-like congenital hypotrichosis (see 607903) is caused by mutation in the DSG4 gene (607892). The clinical picture of autosomal recessive monilethrix is more severe than the dominant form, with more extensive alopecia of the scalp, body, and limbs, and a papular rash involving the extremities and periumbilical region (Zlotogorski et al., 2006). The term monilethrix derives from the Latin word for necklace and the Greek for hair (Schweizer, 2006). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
108185
Concept ID:
C0546966
Congenital Abnormality
9.

Juvenile macular degeneration and hypotrichosis

MedGen UID:
316921
Concept ID:
C1832162
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Schopf-Schulz-Passarge syndrome

MedGen UID:
347366
Concept ID:
C1857069
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Hypotrichosis 4

MedGen UID:
413053
Concept ID:
C2750815
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Ichthyosis, congenital, autosomal recessive 11

Autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) is a heterogeneous group of disorders of keratinization characterized primarily by abnormal skin scaling over the whole body. These disorders are limited to skin, with approximately two-thirds of patients presenting severe symptoms. The main skin phenotypes are lamellar ichthyosis (LI) and nonbullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE), although phenotypic overlap within the same patient or among patients from the same family can occur (summary by Fischer, 2009). Neither histopathologic findings nor ultrastructural features clearly distinguish between NCIE and LI. In addition, mutations in several genes have been shown to cause both lamellar and nonbullous ichthyosiform erythrodermal phenotypes (Akiyama et al., 2003). At the First Ichthyosis Consensus Conference in Soreze in 2009, the term 'autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis' (ARCI) was designated to encompass LI, NCIE, and harlequin ichthyosis (ARCI4B; 242500) (Oji et al., 2010). NCIE is characterized by prominent erythroderma and fine white, superficial, semiadherent scales. Most patients present with collodion membrane at birth and have palmoplantar keratoderma, often with painful fissures, digital contractures, and loss of pulp volume. In half of the cases, a nail dystrophy including ridging, subungual hyperkeratosis, or hypoplasia has been described. Ectropion, eclabium, scalp involvement, and loss of eyebrows and lashes seem to be more frequent in NCIE than in lamellar ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2000). In LI, the scales are large, adherent, dark, and pigmented with no skin erythema. Overlapping phenotypes may depend on the age of the patient and the region of the body. The terminal differentiation of the epidermis is perturbed in both forms, leading to reduced barrier function and defects of lipid composition in the stratum corneum (summary by Lefevre et al., 2006). In later life, the skin in ARCI may have scales that cover the entire body surface, including the flexural folds, and the scales are highly variable in size and color. Erythema may be very mild and almost invisible. Some affected persons exhibit scarring alopecia, and many have secondary anhidrosis (summary by Eckl et al., 2005). For a general phenotypic description and discussion of genetic heterogeneity of autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis, see ARCI1 (242300). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
400800
Concept ID:
C1865595
13.

Neonatal pseudo-hydrocephalic progeroid syndrome

The neonatal progeroid syndrome, also known as Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome, is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, failure to thrive, short stature, a progeroid appearance, hypotonia, variable mental impairment, and death in childhood (summary by Toriello, 1990). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
140806
Concept ID:
C0406586
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Odontotrichomelic syndrome

The GAPO syndrome is the acronymic designation for a complex of growth retardation, alopecia, pseudoanodontia (failure of tooth eruption), and progressive optic atrophy (Tipton and Gorlin, 1984). Ilker et al. (1999) noted that optic atrophy is not a consistent feature of this disorder. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
98034
Concept ID:
C0406723
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Hypotrichosis 7

Autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is a condition that affects hair growth. People with this condition have sparse hair (hypotrichosis) on the scalp beginning in infancy. This hair is usually coarse, dry, and tightly curled (often described as woolly hair). Scalp hair may also be lighter in color than expected and is fragile and easily broken. Affected individuals often cannot grow hair longer than a few inches. The eyebrows, eyelashes, and other body hair may be sparse as well. Over time, the hair problems can remain stable or progress to complete scalp hair loss (alopecia) and a decrease in body hair.Rarely, people with autosomal recessive hypotrichosis have skin problems affecting areas with sparse hair, such as redness (erythema), itchiness (pruritus), or missing patches of skin (erosions) on the scalp. In areas of poor hair growth, they may also develop bumps called hyperkeratotic follicular papules that develop around hair follicles, which are specialized structures in the skin where hair growth occurs. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
322969
Concept ID:
C1836672
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Atrichia with papular lesions

The patients are born with hair that falls out and is not replaced. Histologic studies show malformation of the hair follicles. Papillary lesions over most of the body and almost complete absence of hair are features. [from SNOMEDCT_US]

MedGen UID:
395299
Concept ID:
C1859592
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Hypotrichosis 6

Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis is characterized by fragile hairs that break easily, leaving short, sparse scalp hairs. The disorder affects the trunk and extremities as well as the scalp, and the eyebrows and eyelashes may also be involved, whereas beard, pubic, and axillary hairs are largely spared. In addition, patients can develop hyperkeratotic follicular papules, erythema, and pruritus in affected areas. In some patients with congenital hypotrichosis, monilethrix-like hairs showing elliptical nodes have been observed (summary by Schaffer et al., 2006). Genetic Heterogeneity of Autosomal Recessive Localized Hypotrichosis LAH2 (HYPT7; 604379) is caused by mutation in the LIPH gene (607365) on chromosome 3q27, and LAH3 (HYPT8; 278150) is caused by mutation in the LPAR6 (P2RY5) gene (609239) on chromosome 13q14.12-q14.2. See also hypotrichosis and recurrent skin vesicles (613102), which is caused by mutation in the DSC3 gene (600271). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
335812
Concept ID:
C1842839
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome

Hypotrichosis-lymphedema-telangiectasia syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by these 3 features, which begin at birth or in early childhood and are progressive (summary by Irrthum et al., 2003). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
375070
Concept ID:
C1843004
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Follicular atrophoderma and basal cell epitheliomata

Bazex syndrome is an X-linked dominant disorder characterized by a triad of congenital hypotrichosis, follicular atrophoderma affecting the dorsa of the hands and feet, the face, and extensor surfaces of the elbows or knees, and the development of basal cell neoplasms, including basal cell nevi and basal cell carcinomas from the second decade onward (Yung and Newton-Bishop, 2005). Rombo syndrome (180730) has similar features, but shows autosomal dominant inheritance. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
87539
Concept ID:
C0346104
Neoplastic Process
20.

Ichthyosis, leukocyte vacuoles, alopecia, and sclerosing cholangitis

MedGen UID:
334382
Concept ID:
C1843355
Disease or Syndrome
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