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1.

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome

Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune defects, and a predisposition to malignancy. Chromosomal breakage is a feature. AT cells are abnormally sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation (IR), and abnormally resistant to inhibition of DNA synthesis by ionizing radiation. The latter trait has been used to identify complementation groups for the classic form of the disease (Jaspers et al., 1988). At least 4 of these (A, C, D, and E) map to chromosome 11q23 (Sanal et al., 1990) and are associated with mutations in the ATM gene. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Dyskeratosis congenita X-linked

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC), a telomere biology disorder, is characterized by a classic triad of dysplastic nails, lacy reticular pigmentation of the upper chest and/or neck, and oral leukoplakia. The classic triad may not be present in all individuals. People with DC are at increased risk for progressive bone marrow failure (BMF), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute myelogenous leukemia (AML), solid tumors (usually squamous cell carcinoma of the head/neck or anogenital cancer), and pulmonary fibrosis. Other findings can include: abnormal pigmentation changes not restricted to the upper chest and neck, eye abnormalities (epiphora, blepharitis, sparse eyelashes, ectropion, entropion, trichiasis), and dental abnormalities (caries, periodontal disease, taurodauntism). Although most persons with DC have normal psychomotor development and normal neurologic function, significant developmental delay is present in the two variants in which additional findings include cerebellar hypoplasia (Hoyeraal Hreidarsson syndrome) and bilateral exudative retinopathy and intracranial calcifications (Revesz syndrome). Onset and progression of manifestations of DC vary: at the mild end of the spectrum are those who have only minimal physical findings with normal bone marrow function, and at the severe end are those who have the diagnostic triad and early-onset BMF. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
216941
Concept ID:
C1148551
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Hodgkin lymphoma

Classic Hodgkin lymphoma is a lymph node cancer of germinal center B-cell origin. Hodgkin lymphoma tumors consist of a minority of malignant cells, known as 'Reed-Sternberg' (RS) cells, mixed with reactive lymphocytes and other benign inflammatory cells. A defining feature of RS cells is the presence of 2 nuclei (summary by Salipante et al., 2009). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
9283
Concept ID:
C0019829
Neoplastic Process
4.

Hodgkin lymphoma

A typer of lymphoma characterized microscopically by multinucleated Reed-Sternberg cells. [from HPO]

MedGen UID:
776519
Concept ID:
CN167915
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