Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 42

  • Wrong UID 504946
1.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan syndrome, a systemic disorder of connective tissue with a high degree of clinical variability, comprises a broad phenotypic continuum ranging from mild (features of Marfan syndrome in one or a few systems) to severe and rapidly progressive neonatal multiorgan disease. Cardinal manifestations involve the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Ocular findings include myopia (the most common ocular feature); ectopia lentis (seen in approximately 60% of affected individuals); and an increased risk for retinal detachment, glaucoma, and early cataracts. Skeletal system manifestations include bone overgrowth and joint laxity; disproportionately long extremities for the size of the trunk (dolichostenomelia); overgrowth of the ribs that can push the sternum in (pectus excavatum) or out (pectus carinatum); and scoliosis that ranges from mild to severe and progressive. The major morbidity and early mortality in the Marfan syndrome relate to the cardiovascular system and include dilatation of the aorta at the level of the sinuses of Valsalva (predisposing to aortic tear and rupture), mitral valve prolapse with or without regurgitation, tricuspid valve prolapse, and enlargement of the proximal pulmonary artery. Severe and prolonged regurgitation of the mitral and/or aortic valve can predispose to left ventricular dysfunction and occasionally heart failure. With proper management, the life expectancy of someone with Marfan syndrome approximates that of the general population. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
44287
Concept ID:
C0024796
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS) is a congenital multiple anomaly syndrome caused by an abnormality in cholesterol metabolism resulting from deficiency of the enzyme 7-dehydrocholesterol (7-DHC) reductase. It is characterized by prenatal and postnatal growth retardation, microcephaly, moderate to severe intellectual disability, and multiple major and minor malformations. The malformations include distinctive facial features, cleft palate, cardiac defects, underdeveloped external genitalia in males, postaxial polydactyly, and 2-3 syndactyly of the toes. The clinical spectrum is wide and individuals have been described with normal development and only minor malformations. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
61231
Concept ID:
C0175694
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type IA

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1 (CMT1) is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and slow nerve conduction velocity. It is usually slowly progressive and often associated with pes cavus foot deformity and bilateral foot drop. Affected individuals usually become symptomatic between age five and 25 years. Fewer than 5% of individuals become wheelchair dependent. Life span is not shortened. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
75727
Concept ID:
C0270911
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, demyelinating, type 1b

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1 (CMT1) is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and slow nerve conduction velocity. It is usually slowly progressive and often associated with pes cavus foot deformity and bilateral foot drop. Affected individuals usually become symptomatic between age five and 25 years. Fewer than 5% of individuals become wheelchair dependent. Life span is not shortened. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
124377
Concept ID:
C0270912
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Oculofaciocardiodental syndrome

Lenz microphthalmia syndrome (LMS) is characterized by unilateral or bilateral microphthalmia and/or clinical anophthalmia with malformations of the ears, teeth, fingers, skeleton, and/or genitourinary system. Microphthalmia is often accompanied by microcornea and glaucoma. Coloboma is present in approximately 60% of microphthalmic eyes with severity ranging from isolated iris coloboma to coloboma of the ciliary body, choroid, and optic disk. Ears may be low set, anteverted, posteriorly rotated, simple, cup shaped, or abnormally modeled. Hearing loss has been observed. Dental findings include irregularly shaped, missing, or widely spaced teeth. Duplicated thumbs, syndactyly, clinodactyly, camptodactyly, and microcephaly are common, as are narrow/sloping shoulders, underdeveloped clavicles, kyphoscoliosis, exaggerated lumbar lordosis, long cylindric thorax, and webbed neck. Genitourinary anomalies include hypospadias, cryptorchidism, renal hypoplasia/aplasia, and hydroureter. Approximately 60% of affected males have mild-to-severe intellectual disability or developmental delay. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
337547
Concept ID:
C1846265
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2A2A

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2A (CMT2A) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy characterized by earlier and more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Most affected individuals develop symptoms in the first or second decade. It has recently been suggested that CMT2A represents more than 90% of the severe dominant CMT2 cases. However, milder late-onset cases and unusual presentations have also been described. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
373098
Concept ID:
C1836485
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Spastic ataxia Charlevoix-Saguenay type

ARSACS (autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay) is characterized in individuals born in Quebec Province by early-onset (age 12-18 months) difficulty in walking and gait unsteadiness. In individuals with ARSACS born outside the Province of Quebec, onset is often delayed until later childhood and even adulthood. Ataxia, dysarthria, spasticity, extensor plantar reflexes, distal muscle wasting, a distal sensorimotor neuropathy predominant in the legs, and horizontal gaze-evoked nystagmus constitute the most frequent progressive neurologic signs. Increased demarcation of the retinal nerve fibers located near the vessels close to the optic disc (formerly designated as yellow streaks of hypermyelinated fibers) is very common in individuals with ARSACS who originate from Quebec but may be absent in non-Quebec born individuals. Individuals with ARSACS born in the Province of Quebec become wheelchair bound at the average age of 41 years; cognitive skills are preserved in the long term as individuals remain able to perform daily living tasks late into adulthood. Death commonly occurs in the sixth decade. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
338620
Concept ID:
C1849140
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2C

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
389170
Concept ID:
C2079540
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Distal hereditary motor neuronopathy type 5

GARS-associated axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2D/distal spinal muscular atrophy V [CMT2D/dSMA-V]) is characterized by adolescent or early-adult onset of bilateral weakness and atrophy of thenar and first dorsal interosseus muscles, sparing of the hypothenar eminence until later in the course of illness, and mild to moderate impairment of vibration sense in the hands and feet later in the disease course in a minority of individuals. The phenotype is considered the CMT2D subtype when sensory deficits (reduction of pinprick, temperature, touch, and vibration perception in a stocking and [less often] glove pattern) are present and dSMA-V when sensory deficits are absent. The lower limbs are involved in about half of affected individuals. The earliest elicited manifestations in many individuals are transient cramping and pain in the hands on exposure to cold and cramping in calf muscles on exertion. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
318838
Concept ID:
C1833308
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4A

GDAP1-related hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy (GDAP1-HMSN) is a peripheral neuropathy (also known as a subtype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease) that typically affects the lower extremities earlier and more severely than the upper extremities. As the neuropathy progresses, the distal upper extremities also become severely affected. Proximal muscles can also become weak. Age at onset ranges from infancy to early childhood. In most cases, disease progression causes disabilities within the first or second decade of life. At the end of the second decade, most individuals are wheelchair bound. Disease progression varies considerably even within the same family. The neuropathy can be either of the demyelinating type with reduced nerve conduction velocities or the axonal type with normal nerve conduction velocities. Vocal cord paresis is common. Intelligence is normal. Life expectancy is usually normal, but on occasion may be reduced because of secondary complications. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
347821
Concept ID:
C1859198
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Dejerine-Sottas disease

Dejerine-Sottas neuropathy is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy with onset in infancy. It can show autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. Affected individuals have delayed motor development due to severe distal motor and sensory impairment, resulting in difficulties in gait. Some patients have generalized hypotonia in infancy. Other features may include pes cavus, scoliosis, and sensory ataxia. Nerve conduction velocities are severely decreased (sometimes less than 10 m/s), and sural nerve biopsy shows severe loss of myelinated fibers (summary by Baets et al., 2011). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
3710
Concept ID:
C0011195
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2D

GARS-associated axonal neuropathy (Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 2D/distal spinal muscular atrophy V [CMT2D/dSMA-V]) is characterized by adolescent or early-adult onset of bilateral weakness and atrophy of thenar and first dorsal interosseus muscles, sparing of the hypothenar eminence until later in the course of illness, and mild to moderate impairment of vibration sense in the hands and feet later in the disease course in a minority of individuals. The phenotype is considered the CMT2D subtype when sensory deficits (reduction of pinprick, temperature, touch, and vibration perception in a stocking and [less often] glove pattern) are present and dSMA-V when sensory deficits are absent. The lower limbs are involved in about half of affected individuals. The earliest elicited manifestations in many individuals are transient cramping and pain in the hands on exposure to cold and cramping in calf muscles on exertion. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
316946
Concept ID:
C1832274
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2E

MedGen UID:
375127
Concept ID:
C1843225
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and deafness

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 1 (CMT1) is a demyelinating peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, sensory loss, and slow nerve conduction velocity. It is usually slowly progressive and often associated with pes cavus foot deformity and bilateral foot drop. Affected individuals usually become symptomatic between age five and 25 years. Fewer than 5% of individuals become wheelchair dependent. Life span is not shortened. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
348419
Concept ID:
C1861669
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, axonal, type 2b

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
371512
Concept ID:
C1833219
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 4B2

Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy type 4 (CMT4) is a group of progressive motor and sensory axonal and demyelinating neuropathies that are distinguished from other forms of CMT by autosomal recessive inheritance. Affected individuals have the typical CMT phenotype of distal muscle weakness and atrophy associated with sensory loss and, frequently, pes cavus foot deformity. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
346869
Concept ID:
C1858278
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 2A1

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2A (CMT2A) is a classic axonal peripheral sensorimotor neuropathy characterized by earlier and more severe involvement of the lower extremities than the upper extremities, distal upper-extremity involvement as the neuropathy progresses, more prominent motor deficits than sensory deficits, and normal (>42 m/s) or only slightly decreased nerve conduction velocities (NCVs). Postural tremor is common. Most affected individuals develop symptoms in the first or second decade. It has recently been suggested that CMT2A represents more than 90% of the severe dominant CMT2 cases. However, milder late-onset cases and unusual presentations have also been described. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
350076
Concept ID:
C1861678
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Troyer syndrome

Troyer syndrome is characterized by progressive spastic paraparesis, dysarthria, and pseudobulbar palsy; distal amyotrophy; motor and cognitive delays; short stature; and subtle skeletal abnormalities. Most affected children exhibit delays in walking and talking followed by slow deterioration in both gait and speech. Emotional lability and affective disorders, such as inappropriate euphoria and/or crying, are common. Mild cerebellar signs are common. The most severely affected individuals have choreoathetosis. Life expectancy is normal. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
97950
Concept ID:
C0393559
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Bifunctional peroxisomal enzyme deficiency

D-bifunctional protein deficiency is a disorder of peroxisomal fatty acid beta-oxidation. See also peroxisomal acyl-CoA oxidase deficiency (264470), caused by mutation in the ACOX1 gene (609751) on chromosome 17q25. The clinical manifestations of these 2 deficiencies are similar to those of disorders of peroxisomal assembly, including X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (ALD; 300100), Zellweger cerebrohepatorenal syndrome (see 214100) and neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (NALD; see 601539) (Watkins et al., 1995). DBP deficiency has been classified into 3 subtypes depending upon the deficient enzyme activity. Type I is a deficiency of both 2-enoyl-CoA hydratase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase; type II is a deficiency of hydratase activity alone; and type III is a deficiency of dehydrogenase activity alone. Virtually all patients with types I, II, and III have a severe phenotype characterized by infantile-onset of hypotonia, seizures, and abnormal facial features, and most die before age 2 years. McMillan et al. (2012) proposed a type IV deficiency on the basis of less severe features; these patients have a phenotype reminiscent of Perrault syndrome (PRLTS1; 233400). Pierce et al. (2010) noted that Perrault syndrome and DBP deficiency overlap clinically and suggested that DBP deficiency may be underdiagnosed. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
137982
Concept ID:
C0342870
Pathologic Function
20.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2P

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
482427
Concept ID:
C3280797
Disease or Syndrome
Format
Items per page

Send to:

Choose Destination

Supplemental Content

Find related data

Search details

See more...

Recent activity

Your browsing activity is empty.

Activity recording is turned off.

Turn recording back on

See more...
Support Center