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  • Wrong UID 505219
1.

Fabry disease

Fabry disease results from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (a-Gal A) and progressive lysosomal deposition of globotriaosylceramide (GL-3) in cells throughout the body. The classic form, occurring in males with less than 1% a-Gal A enzyme activity, usually has its onset in childhood or adolescence with periodic crises of severe pain in the extremities (acroparesthesia), the appearance of vascular cutaneous lesions (angiokeratomas), sweating abnormalities (anhidrosis, hypohidrosis, and rarely hyperhidrosis), characteristic corneal and lenticular opacities, and proteinuria. Gradual deterioration of renal function to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) usually occurs in men in the third to fifth decade. In middle age, most males successfully treated for ESRD develop cardiac and/or cerebrovascular disease, a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Heterozygous females typically have milder symptoms at a later age of onset than males. Rarely, they may be relatively asymptomatic throughout a normal life span or may have symptoms as severe as those observed in males with the classic phenotype. In contrast, males with greater than 1% a-Gal A activity may have: (1) a cardiac variant phenotype that usually presents in the sixth to eighth decade with left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy and arrhythmia, and proteinuria, but without ESRD; or (2) a renal variant phenotype, associated with ESRD but without the skin lesions or pain; or (3) cerebrovascular disease presenting as stroke or transient ischemic attack. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
8083
Concept ID:
C0002986
Disease or Syndrome
2.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
400169
Concept ID:
C1862939
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Azorean disease

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3 (SCA3), also known as Machado-Joseph disease (MJD), is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia and variable findings including a dystonic-rigid syndrome, a parkinsonian syndrome, or a combined syndrome of dystonia and peripheral neuropathy. Neurologic findings tend to evolve as the disease progresses. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
9841
Concept ID:
C0024408
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Spinocerebellar ataxia 2

Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is characterized by progressive cerebellar ataxia, including nystagmus, slow saccadic eye movements and, in some individuals, ophthalmoparesis or parkinsonism. Pyramidal findings are present; deep tendon reflexes are brisk early on and absent later in the course. Age of onset is typically in the fourth decade with a ten- to 15-year disease duration. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
155704
Concept ID:
C0752121
Disease or Syndrome
5.

Sandhoff disease

Sandhoff disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by an accumulation of GM2 gangliosides, particularly in neurons, and is clinically indistinguishable from Tay-Sachs disease (272800). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
11313
Concept ID:
C0036161
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Bulbo-spinal atrophy X-linked

Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a gradually progressive neuromuscular disorder in which degeneration of lower motor neurons results in muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and fasciculations. SBMA occurs only in males. Affected individuals often show gynecomastia, testicular atrophy, and reduced fertility as a result of mild androgen insensitivity. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
333282
Concept ID:
C1839259
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 6

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
374989
Concept ID:
C1842675
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2F

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
335784
Concept ID:
C1847823
Disease or Syndrome
9.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 8

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
325237
Concept ID:
C1837728
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 14, with or without frontotemporal dementia

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
462753
Concept ID:
C3151403
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 2P

Charcot-Marie-Tooth hereditary neuropathy type 2 (CMT2) is an axonal (non-demyelinating) peripheral neuropathy characterized by distal muscle weakness and atrophy, mild sensory loss, and normal or near-normal nerve conduction velocities. CMT2 is clinically similar to CMT1, although typically less severe. Peripheral nerves are not enlarged or hypertrophic. The subtypes of CMT2 are similar clinically and distinguished only by molecular genetic findings. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
482427
Concept ID:
C3280797
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia type 1A

Pontocerebellar hypoplasia (PCH) refers to a group of severe neurodegenerative disorders affecting growth and function of the brainstem and cerebellum, resulting in little or no development. Different types were classified based on the clinical picture and the spectrum of pathologic changes. PCH type 1 is characterized by central and peripheral motor dysfunction associated with anterior horn cell degeneration resembling infantile spinal muscular atrophy (SMA; see SMA1, 253300); death usually occurs early. In PCH type 2 (see PCH2A, 277470), there is progressive microcephaly from birth combined with extrapyramidal dyskinesias. PCH3 (608027) is characterized by hypotonia, hyperreflexia, microcephaly, optic atrophy, and seizures. PCH4 (225753) is characterized by hypertonia, joint contractures, olivopontocerebellar hypoplasia, and early death. Patients with PCH5 (610204) have cerebellar hypoplasia apparent in the second trimester and show seizures. PCH6 (611523) is associated with mitochondrial respiratory chain defects (summary by Graham et al., 2010). Also see PCH7 (614969), PCH8 (614961), PCH9 (615809), and PCH10 (615803). Genetic Heterogeneity of Pontocerebellar Hypoplasia Also see PCH1B (614678), caused by mutation in the EXOSC3 gene (606489); PCH1C (616081), caused by mutation in the EXOSC8 gene (606019); PCH2A (277470), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene (608755); PCH2B (612389), caused by mutation in the TSEN2 gene (608753); PCH2C (612390), caused by mutation in the TSEN34 gene (608754); PCH2D (613811), caused by mutation in the SEPSECS gene (613009); PCH3 (608027), caused by mutation in the PCLO gene (604918); PCH4 (225753), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH5 (610204), caused by mutation in the TSEN54 gene; PCH6 (611523), caused by mutation in the RARS2 gene (611524); PCH7 (614969), caused by mutation in the TOE1 gene (613931); PCH8 (614961), caused by mutation in the CHMP1A gene (164010); PCH9 (615809), caused by mutation in the AMPD2 gene (102771); and PCH10 (615803), caused by mutation in the CLP1 gene (608757). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
335969
Concept ID:
C1843504
Congenital Abnormality; Disease or Syndrome
13.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 5

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
356388
Concept ID:
C1865864
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 18

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
766633
Concept ID:
C3553719
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 17

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease involving both upper motor neurons (UMN) and lower motor neurons (LMN). UMN signs include hyperreflexia, extensor plantar response, increased muscle tone, and weakness in a topographic representation. LMN signs include weakness, muscle wasting, hyporeflexia, muscle cramps, and fasciculations. Initial presentation varies. Affected individuals typically present with either asymmetric focal weakness of the extremities (stumbling or poor handgrip) or bulbar findings (dysarthria, dysphagia). Other findings may include muscle fasciculations, muscle cramps, and labile affect, but not necessarily mood. Regardless of initial symptoms, atrophy and weakness eventually affect other muscles. The mean age of onset is 56 years in individuals with no known family history and 46 years in individuals with more than one affected family member (familial ALS or FALS). Average disease duration is about three years, but it can vary significantly. Death usually results from compromise of the respiratory muscles. [from GeneReviews]

MedGen UID:
373010
Concept ID:
C1836076
Disease or Syndrome
16.

Combined saposin deficiency

MedGen UID:
382151
Concept ID:
C2673635
Disease or Syndrome
17.

Adult proximal spinal muscular atrophy, autosomal dominant

Spinal muscular atrophy is characterized by degeneration of the anterior horn cells in the spinal cord, leading to symmetric muscle weakness and wasting. See also autosomal recessive adult-onset proximal spinal muscular atrophy (SMA4; 271150), caused by defect in the SMN1 gene (600354), and autosomal dominant childhood-onset proximal SMA (158600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
357133
Concept ID:
C1866777
Disease or Syndrome
18.

Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy

Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy is an autosomal recessive muscle disorder characterized by adult onset of slowly progressive proximal muscle weakness affecting the upper and lower limbs and associated with increased serum creatine kinase; distal muscle weakness may also occur. About half of patients develop cardiomyopathy later in the disease course. Other variable features include diabetes mellitus, hepatic steatosis, hypertriglyceridemia, and possibly sensorineural hearing loss. Leukocytes and muscle cells show cytoplasmic accumulation of triglycerides (summary by Reilich et al., 2011). Neutral lipid storage disease with myopathy belongs to a group of disorders termed neutral lipid storage disorders (NLSDs). These disorders are characterized by the presence of triglyceride-containing cytoplasmic droplets in leukocytes and in other tissues, including bone marrow, skin, and muscle. Chanarin-Dorfman syndrome (CDS; 275630) is defined as NLSD with ichthyosis (NLSDI). Patients with NLSDM present with myopathy but without ichthyosis (summary by Fischer et al., 2007). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
339913
Concept ID:
C1853136
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Spinal muscular atrophy, lower extremity predominant 2, autosomal dominant

SMALED2 is an autosomal dominant form of spinal muscular atrophy characterized by early-childhood onset of muscle weakness and atrophy predominantly affecting the proximal and distal muscles of the lower extremity, although some patients may show upper extremity involvement. The disorder results in delayed walking, waddling gait, difficulty walking, and loss of distal reflexes. Some patients may have foot deformities or hyperlordosis, and some show mild upper motor signs, such as spasticity. Sensation, bulbar function, and cognitive function are preserved. The disorder shows very slow progression throughout life (summary by Oates et al., 2013). For discussion of genetic heterogeneity of lower extremity-predominant spinal muscular atrophy, see SMALED1 (158600). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
815379
Concept ID:
C3809049
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Spinocerebellar ataxia, autosomal recessive 10

Autosomal recessive spinocerebellar ataxia-10 is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder with onset in the teenage or young adult years of gait and limb ataxia, dysarthria, and nystagmus associated with marked cerebellar atrophy on brain imaging (summary by Vermeer et al., 2010). Some patients have low levels of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) in muscle and may show some clinical improvement with CoQ10 treatment (Balreira et al., 2014). [from OMIM]

MedGen UID:
462348
Concept ID:
C3150998
Disease or Syndrome
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