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Cafe-au-lait spot

MedGen UID:
113157
Concept ID:
C0221263
Finding
Synonyms: Birthmark; Cafe-au-lait macule; Cafe-au-lait macules; Cafe-au-lait spots
SNOMED CT: Café au lait spots (201281002); Café au lait spot (201281002); Cafe au lait spots (201281002); Cafe-au-lait spots (201281002)
 
HPO: HP:0000957

Definition

A light brown, sharply demarcated skin patch. It is a manifestation of neurofibromatosis type 1 and McCune-Albright syndrome. [from NCI]

Term Hierarchy

Conditions with this feature

Ataxia-telangiectasia syndrome
MedGen UID:
439
Concept ID:
C0004135
Disease or Syndrome
Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, telangiectases, immune defects, and a predisposition to malignancy. Chromosomal breakage is a feature. AT cells are abnormally sensitive to killing by ionizing radiation (IR), and abnormally resistant to inhibition of DNA synthesis by ionizing radiation. The latter trait has been used to identify complementation groups for the classic form of the disease (Jaspers et al., 1988). At least 4 of these (A, C, D, and E) map to chromosome 11q23 (Sanal et al., 1990) and are associated with mutations in the ATM gene.
Bloom syndrome
MedGen UID:
2685
Concept ID:
C0005859
Disease or Syndrome
Bloom’s syndrome (BSyn) is characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth deficiency, sparseness of subcutaneous fat tissue throughout infancy and early childhood, and short stature throughout postnatal life that in most affected individuals is accompanied by an erythematous and sun-sensitive skin lesion of the face. Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is common and very possibly responsible for infections of the upper respiratory tract, the middle ear, and the lung that occur repeatedly in most persons with BSyn. Although most affected individuals have normal intellectual ability, many exhibit a poorly defined learning disability. Women may be fertile, but menopause occurs unusually early; men are infertile. Serious medical complications that are much more common than in the general population and that also appear at unusually early ages are chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus resembling the adult-onset type, and cancer of a wide variety of types and anatomic sites. BSyn occurs rarely in all national and ethnic groups but is relatively less rare in Ashkenazi Jews.
Multiple endocrine neoplasia, type 1
MedGen UID:
9957
Concept ID:
C0025267
Neoplastic Process
Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) syndrome includes varying combinations of more than 20 endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. Endocrine tumors become evident either by overproduction of hormones by the tumor or by growth of the tumor itself. Parathyroid tumors are the main MEN1-associated endocrinopathy; onset in 90% of individuals is between ages 20 and 25 years with hypercalcemia evident by age 50 years; hypercalcemia causes lethargy, depression, confusion, anorexia, constipation, nausea, vomiting, diuresis, dehydration, hypercalciuria, kidney stones, increased bone resorption/fracture risk, hypertension, and shortened QT interval. Pituitary tumors include prolactinoma (the most common), which manifests as oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea and galactorrhea in females and sexual dysfunction in males. Well-differentiated endocrine tumors of the gastro-entero-pancreatic (GEP) tract can manifest as Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (gastrinoma); hypoglycemia (insulinoma); hyperglycemia, anorexia, glossitis, anemia, diarrhea, venous thrombosis, and skin rash (glucagonoma); and watery diarrhea, hypokalemia, and achlorhydria syndrome (vasoactive intestinal peptide [VIP]-secreting tumor). Carcinoid tumors are non-hormone-secreting and can manifest as a large mass after age 50 years. Adrenocortical tumors can be associated with primary hypercortisolism or hyperaldosteronism. Non-endocrine tumors include facial angiofibromas, collagenomas, lipomas, meningiomas, ependymomas, and leiomyomas.
Pheochromocytoma
MedGen UID:
18419
Concept ID:
C0031511
Neoplastic Process
Hereditary paraganglioma-pheochromocytoma (PGL/PCC) syndromes are characterized by paragangliomas (tumors that arise from neuroendocrine tissues symmetrically distributed along the paravertebral axis from the base of the skull to the pelvis) and by pheochromocytomas (paragangliomas that are confined to the adrenal medulla). Sympathetic paragangliomas hypersecrete catecholamines; parasympathetic paragangliomas are most often nonsecretory. Extra-adrenal parasympathetic paragangliomas are located predominantly in the skull base, neck, and upper medistinum; approximately 95% of such tumors are nonsecretory. In contrast, sympathetic extra-adrenal paragangliomas are generally confined to the lower mediastinum, abdomen, and pelvis, and are typically secretory. Pheochromocytomas, which arise from the adrenal medulla, typically hypersecrete catecholamines. Symptoms of PGL/PCC result either from mass effects or catecholamine hypersecretion (e.g., sustained or paroxysmal elevations in blood pressure, headache, episodic profuse sweating, forceful palpitations, pallor, and apprehension or anxiety). The risk for malignant transformation is greater for extra-adrenal sympathetic paragangliomas than for pheochromocytomas or skull base and neck paragangliomas.
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome
MedGen UID:
48517
Concept ID:
C0035934
Disease or Syndrome
Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal; however, height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Obesity may occur in childhood or adolescence. IQ scores range from 25 to 79; average IQ is between 36 and 51. Other variable findings are coloboma, cataract, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, and cryptorchidism.
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome
MedGen UID:
59798
Concept ID:
C0175692
Disease or Syndrome
Pancreatitis is inflammation of the pancreas that progresses from acute (sudden onset; duration <6 months) to recurrent acute (>1 episode of acute pancreatitis) to chronic (duration >6 months). The range of symptoms and disease course vary from person to person. Familial pancreatitis, defined as pancreatitis from any cause that occurs in a family with an incidence that is greater than would be expected by chance alone, can be non-genetic or genetic, the latter including autosomal dominant hereditary pancreatitis and pancreatitis syndromes characterized by pancreatitis or pancreatic insufficiency. The majority of familial pancreatitis appears to have a complex, multigenic, or gene-environmental etiology with a variable number of germline pathogenic variants in genes that affect trypsin regulation, including CASR, CTRC, and CLDN2. Hereditary pancreatitis (HP) is defined as either two or more individuals with pancreatitis in two or more generations of a family (i.e., an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance) or pancreatitis associated with a germline PRSS1 disease-causing gain-of-function variant. The phenotype of hereditary pancreatitis is increased susceptibility to acute pancreatitis, with complications such as chronic inflammation, fibrosis, and chronic pain in some affected individuals. Heterozygous pathogenic variants in PRSS1 are found in 60%-100% of families with hereditary pancreatitis, and most large families with pancreatitis spanning multiple generations; biallelic pathogenic variants in SPINK1 or biallelic pathogenic variants in CFTR result in autosomal recessive pancreatitis. Syndromes in which pancreatitis is a finding include: Pearson marrow pancreas syndrome, CEL maturity-onset diabetes of the young (CEL-MODY), and Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder, includes pancreatic exocrine insufficiency as well as other features. Idiopathic sporadic pancreatitis is a single occurrence of pancreatitis in a family for which no etiology is identified.
Russell-Silver syndrome
MedGen UID:
104492
Concept ID:
C0175693
Disease or Syndrome
Russell-Silver syndrome (RSS) is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation accompanied by postnatal growth deficiency. The birth weight of affected infants is typically two or more SD below the mean, and postnatal growth two or more SD below the mean for length or height. Affected individuals typically have proportionately short stature, normal head circumference, fifth-finger clinodactyly, typical facial features with triangular facies characterized by broad forehead and narrow chin, and limb-length asymmetry that may result from hemihypotrophy with diminished growth of the affected side. Growth velocity is normal in children with RSS. The average adult height of males is 151.2 cm and that of females is 139.9 cm. Evidence exists that children with RSS are at significant risk for developmental delay (both motor and cognitive) and learning disabilities.
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines
MedGen UID:
104494
Concept ID:
C0175704
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Russell-silver syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
67401
Concept ID:
C0220775
Disease or Syndrome
Turcot syndrome
MedGen UID:
78553
Concept ID:
C0265325
Disease or Syndrome
Lynch syndrome is characterized by an increased risk for colorectal cancer (CRC) and cancers of the endometrium, stomach, ovary, small bowel, hepatobiliary tract, urinary tract, brain, and skin. In individuals with Lynch syndrome the following lifetime risks for cancer are seen: CRC: 52%-82% (mean age at diagnosis 44-61 years). Endometrial cancer in females: 25%-60% (mean age at diagnosis 48-62 years). Gastric cancer: 6%-13% (mean age at diagnosis 56 years). Ovarian cancer: 4%-12% (mean age at diagnosis 42.5 years; ~30% are diagnosed < age 40 years). The risk for other Lynch syndrome-related cancers is lower, though substantially increased over general population rates.
Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome
MedGen UID:
78554
Concept ID:
C0265326
Disease or Syndrome
The PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome (PHTS) includes Cowden syndrome (CS), Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome (BRRS), PTEN-related Proteus syndrome (PS), and Proteus-like syndrome. CS is a multiple hamartoma syndrome with a high risk for benign and malignant tumors of the thyroid, breast, and endometrium. Affected individuals usually have macrocephaly, trichilemmomas, and papillomatous papules, and present by the late 20s. The lifetime risk of developing breast cancer is 85%, with an average age of diagnosis between 38 and 46 years. The lifetime risk for thyroid cancer (usually follicular, rarely papillary, but never medullary thyroid cancer) is approximately 35%. The risk for endometrial cancer may approach 28%. BRRS is a congenital disorder characterized by macrocephaly, intestinal hamartomatous polyposis, lipomas, and pigmented macules of the glans penis. PS is a complex, highly variable disorder involving congenital malformations and hamartomatous overgrowth of multiple tissues, as well as connective tissue nevi, epidermal nevi, and hyperostoses. Proteus-like syndrome is undefined but refers to individuals with significant clinical features of PS who do not meet the diagnostic criteria for PS.
Roberts-SC phocomelia syndrome
MedGen UID:
95931
Concept ID:
C0392475
Disease or Syndrome
Roberts syndrome (RBS) is characterized by prenatal growth retardation (ranging from mild to severe), craniofacial findings (including microcephaly and cleft lip and/or palate) and limb malformations (including bilateral symmetric tetraphocomelia or hypomelia caused by mesomelic shortening). Upper limbs are more severely affected than lower limbs. Other limb malformations include oligodactyly with thumb aplasia or hypoplasia, syndactyly, clinodactyly, and elbow and knee flexion contractures. Craniofacial abnormalities include cleft lip and/or cleft palate, premaxillary prominence, micrognathia, microbrachycephaly, malar flattening, downslanted palpebral fissures, widely spaced eyes, exophthalmos resulting from shallow orbits, corneal clouding, underdeveloped ala nasi, beaked nose, and ear malformations. Intellectual disability is reported in the majority of affected individuals. Mortality is high among severely affected pregnancies and newborns. Mildly affected individuals may survive to adulthood.
Microcephaly, normal intelligence and immunodeficiency
MedGen UID:
140771
Concept ID:
C0398791
Disease or Syndrome
Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) is characterized by progressive microcephaly, intrauterine growth retardation and short stature, recurrent sinopulmonary infections, an increased risk for cancer, and premature ovarian failure in females. Developmental milestones are attained at the usual time during the first year; however, borderline delays in development and hyperactivity may be observed in early childhood. Intellectual abilities tend to decline over time and most children tested after age seven years have mild to moderate intellectual disability. Recurrent pneumonia and bronchitis may result in respiratory failure and early death. Approximately 40% of affected individuals have developed malignancies before age 20 years, with the risk being highest for T-cell (55%) and B-cell lymphomas (45%). Other tumors include solid tumors (e.g., medulloblastoma, glioma, and rhabdomyosarcoma). Note, however, that much of what is reported about NBS is based on individuals who are homozygous for the single most common Eastern European pathogenic variant, c.657_661del5.
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type 2
MedGen UID:
96587
Concept ID:
C0432246
Congenital Abnormality
Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is characterized by intrauterine growth retardation, severe proportionate short stature, and microcephaly. It is distinct from Seckel syndrome (see 210600) by more severe growth retardation, radiologic abnormalities, and absent or mild mental retardation (summary by Willems et al., 2010).
Kabuki syndrome
MedGen UID:
162897
Concept ID:
C0796004
Congenital Abnormality
Kabuki syndrome is a disorder that affects many parts of the body. It is characterized by distinctive facial features including arched eyebrows; long eyelashes; long openings of the eyelids (long palpebral fissures) with the lower lids turned out (everted) at the outside edges; a flat, broadened tip of the nose; and large protruding earlobes. The name of this disorder comes from the resemblance of its characteristic facial appearance to stage makeup used in traditional Japanese Kabuki theater.People with Kabuki syndrome have mild to severe developmental delay and intellectual disability. Affected individuals may also have seizures, an unusually small head size (microcephaly), or weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Some have eye problems such as rapid, involuntary eye movements (nystagmus) or eyes that do not look in the same direction (strabismus).Other characteristic features of Kabuki syndrome include short stature and skeletal abnormalities such as abnormal side-to-side curvature of the spine (scoliosis), short fifth (pinky) fingers, or problems with the hip and knee joints. The roof of the mouth may have an abnormal opening (cleft palate) or be high and arched, and dental problems are common in affected individuals. People with Kabuki syndrome may also have fingerprints with unusual features and fleshy pads at the tips of the fingers. These prominent finger pads are called fetal finger pads because they normally occur in human fetuses; in most people they disappear before birth.A wide variety of other health problems occur in some people with Kabuki syndrome. Among the most commonly reported are heart abnormalities, frequent ear infections (otitis media), hearing loss, and early puberty.
Neurofibromatosis, familial spinal
MedGen UID:
320296
Concept ID:
C1834235
Disease or Syndrome
Spinal neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by a high load of spinal tumors. These tumors may be asymptomatic or result in neurologic symptoms, including back pain, difficulty walking, and paresthesias. Spinal NF is considered to be a subtype of neurofibromatosis type I (NF1; 162200), which is an allelic disorder. Patients with spinal NF may or may not have the classic cutaneous cafe-au-lait pigmentary macules or ocular Lisch nodules typically observed in patients with classic NF1. Patients with spinal NF should be followed closely for spinal sequelae (summary by Burkitt Wright et al., 2013).
Fanconi anemia, complementation group N
MedGen UID:
372133
Concept ID:
C1835817
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Familial progressive hyperpigmentation with or without hypopigmentation
MedGen UID:
333550
Concept ID:
C1840392
Disease or Syndrome
Familial progressive hyperpigmentation with or without hypopigmentation (FPHH) is characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of variable intensity sometimes associated with cafe-au-lait macules and larger hypopigmented ash-leaf macules. These features, which involve the face, neck, trunk, and limbs, are seen at birth or develop early in infancy (summary by Wang et al., 2009 and Amyere et al., 2011). Also see familial progressive hyperpigmentation (FPH1; 614233).
Gastrocutaneous syndrome
MedGen UID:
338154
Concept ID:
C1850899
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis 1
MedGen UID:
344288
Concept ID:
C1854465
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (cortical dysplasias, subependymal nodules and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability/developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM]). CNS tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Tuberous sclerosis 2
MedGen UID:
348170
Concept ID:
C1860707
Disease or Syndrome
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) involves abnormalities of the skin (hypomelanotic macules, facial angiofibromas, shagreen patches, cephalic plaques, ungual fibromas); brain (cortical dysplasias, subependymal nodules and subependymal giant cell astrocytomas [SEGAs], seizures, intellectual disability/developmental delay, psychiatric illness); kidney (angiomyolipomas, cysts, renal cell carcinomas); heart (rhabdomyomas, arrhythmias); and lungs (lymphangioleiomyomatosis [LAM]). CNS tumors are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality; renal disease is the second leading cause of early death.
Pheochromocytoma-islet cell tumor syndrome
MedGen UID:
401431
Concept ID:
C1868392
Neoplastic Process
LEOPARD syndrome 2
MedGen UID:
370588
Concept ID:
C1969056
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome with multiple lentigines (NSML) is a condition in which the cardinal features consist of lentigines, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, short stature, pectus deformity, and dysmorphic facial features, including widely spaced eyes and ptosis. Multiple lentigines present as dispersed flat, black-brown macules, mostly on the face, neck and upper part of the trunk with sparing of the mucosa. In general, lentigines do not appear until age four to five years but then increase to the thousands by puberty. Some individuals with NSML do not exhibit lentigines. Approximately 85% of affected individuals have heart defects, including hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) (typically appearing during infancy and sometimes progressive) and pulmonary valve stenosis. Postnatal growth retardation resulting in short stature occurs in fewer than 50% of affected persons, although most affected individuals have a height that is less than the 25th percentile for age. Sensorineural hearing deficits, present in approximately 20%, are poorly characterized. Intellectual disability, typically mild, is observed in approximately 30% of persons with NSML.
Legius syndrome
MedGen UID:
370709
Concept ID:
C1969623
Disease or Syndrome
Legius syndrome is characterized by multiple café au lait macules without neurofibromas or other tumor manifestations of neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1). Additional clinical manifestations reported commonly include intertriginous freckling, lipomas, macrocephaly, and learning disabilities / ADHD / developmental delays. Current knowledge of the natural history of Legius syndrome is based on the clinical manifestations of fewer than 200 individuals with a molecularly confirmed diagnosis; better delineation of the clinical manifestations and natural history of Legius syndrome will likely occur as more affected individuals are identified.
Mental retardation, syndromic 14, X-linked
MedGen UID:
372646
Concept ID:
C1970822
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2E
MedGen UID:
398476
Concept ID:
C2700405
Disease or Syndrome
Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is an auditory-pigmentary syndrome characterized by pigmentary abnormalities of the hair, skin, and eyes; congenital sensorineural hearing loss; and the absence of 'dystopia canthorum,' the lateral displacement of the inner canthus of each eye, which is seen in some other forms of WS (review by Read and Newton, 1997). Individuals with WS type 2E, which is caused by mutation in the SOX10 gene (602229), may have neurologic abnormalities, including mental impairment, myelination defects, and ataxia. Waardenburg syndrome type 2 is genetically heterogeneous (see WS2A; 193510). For a description of other clinical variants of Waardenburg syndrome, see WS1 (193500), WS3 (148820), and WS4 (277580).
Neurofibromatosis-Noonan syndrome
MedGen UID:
419089
Concept ID:
C2931482
Disease or Syndrome
A variant of neurofibromatosis type 1 characterised by the combination of features of neurofibromatosis type 1, such as café-au-lait spots, iris Lisch nodules, axillary and inguinal freckling, optic nerve glioma and multiple neurofibromas; and Noonan syndrome, with features such as short stature, typical facial features, congenital heart defects and unusual pectus deformity.
Witteveen-kolk syndrome
MedGen UID:
462024
Concept ID:
C3150674
Disease or Syndrome
The 15q24 microdeletion syndrome is characterized by global developmental delay; mild to severe (usually at least moderate) intellectual disability; facial dysmorphisms; congenital malformations of the hands and feet, eye, and genitalia; joint laxity; and growth retardation and failure to thrive. Less common findings include: seizures; conductive and sensorineural hearing loss; hypospadias and/ or micropenis. Males and females are affected equally.
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with or without juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia
MedGen UID:
462153
Concept ID:
C3150803
Disease or Syndrome
Noonan syndrome-like disorder is a developmental disorder resembling Noonan syndrome (NS1; 163950) and characterized by facial dysmorphism, a wide spectrum of cardiac disease, reduced growth, variable cognitive deficits, and ectodermal and musculoskeletal anomalies. There is extensive phenotypic heterogeneity and variable expressivity (summary by Martinelli et al., 2010). Patients with heterozygous germline CBL mutations have an increased risk for certain malignancies, particularly juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML; 607785), as also seen in patients with Noonan syndrome (summary by Niemeyer et al., 2010).
Fanconi anemia, complementation group D2
MedGen UID:
463627
Concept ID:
C3160738
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group E
MedGen UID:
463628
Concept ID:
C3160739
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group C
MedGen UID:
483324
Concept ID:
C3468041
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group A
MedGen UID:
483333
Concept ID:
C3469521
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group L
MedGen UID:
854018
Concept ID:
C3469528
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Fanconi anemia, complementation group P
MedGen UID:
854020
Concept ID:
C3469542
Disease or Syndrome
Fanconi anemia (FA) is characterized by physical abnormalities, bone marrow failure, and increased risk for malignancy. Physical abnormalities, present in approximately 75% of affected individuals, include one or more of the following: short stature, abnormal skin pigmentation, skeletal malformations of the upper and lower limbs, microcephaly, and ophthalmic and genitourinary tract anomalies. Progressive bone marrow failure with pancytopenia typically presents in the first decade, often initially with thrombocytopenia or leukopenia. The incidence of acute myeloid leukemia is 13% by age 50 years. Solid tumors – particularly of the head and neck, skin, gastrointestinal tract, and genitourinary tract – are more common in individuals with FA.
Ohdo syndrome, X-linked
MedGen UID:
785805
Concept ID:
C3698541
Disease or Syndrome
The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (referred to as XLOS in this GeneReview) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described.
Smith-Kingsmore syndrome
MedGen UID:
899689
Concept ID:
C4225259
Disease or Syndrome
Smith-Kingsmore syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant syndromic intellectual disability syndrome characterized by macrocephaly, seizures, umbilical hernia, and facial dysmorphic features including frontal bossing, midface hypoplasia, small chin, hypertelorism with downslanting palpebral fissures, depressed nasal bridge, smooth philtrum, and thin upper lip (Smith et al., 2013; Baynam et al., 2015).
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2
MedGen UID:
1376945
Concept ID:
C4479577
Disease or Syndrome

Recent clinical studies

Etiology

Wimmer K, Rosenbaum T, Messiaen L
Clin Genet 2017 Apr;91(4):507-519. Epub 2017 Jan 10 doi: 10.1111/cge.12904. PMID: 27779754
Ali AM, Kirby M, Jansen M, Lach FP, Schulte J, Singh TR, Batish SD, Auerbach AD, Williams DA, Meetei AR
Hum Mutat 2009 Jul;30(7):E761-70. doi: 10.1002/humu.21032. PMID: 19405097Free PMC Article
Brems H, Chmara M, Sahbatou M, Denayer E, Taniguchi K, Kato R, Somers R, Messiaen L, De Schepper S, Fryns JP, Cools J, Marynen P, Thomas G, Yoshimura A, Legius E
Nat Genet 2007 Sep;39(9):1120-6. Epub 2007 Aug 19 doi: 10.1038/ng2113. PMID: 17704776
Dragieva G, Stahel HU, Meyer M, Kempf W, Häffner A, Burg G, Hafner J
Vasa 2003 Aug;32(3):159-63. doi: 10.1024/0301-1526.32.3.159. PMID: 14524037
Whitehouse D
Arch Dis Child 1966 Jun;41(217):316-9. PMID: 4957366Free PMC Article

Diagnosis

Neri I, Lambertini M, Tengattini V, Rivalta B, Patrizi A
Pediatr Dermatol 2017 May;34(3):e152-e153. doi: 10.1111/pde.13126. PMID: 28523880
Wimmer K, Rosenbaum T, Messiaen L
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Therapy

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Prognosis

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Mastrangelo MJ, Goepp CE, Patel YA, Clark WH Jr
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Clinical prediction guides

Gerritsen MJ, Steijlen PM, Brunner HG, Rieu P
Br J Dermatol 2000 Feb;142(2):366-9. PMID: 10730777
Yamamoto T, Ozono K, Kasayama S, Yoh K, Hiroshima K, Takagi M, Matsumoto S, Michigami T, Yamaoka K, Kishimoto T, Okada S
J Clin Invest 1996 Jul 1;98(1):30-5. doi: 10.1172/JCI118773. PMID: 8690800Free PMC Article
Hannan MA, Smith BP, Sigut D, Sackey K
Cancer Genet Cytogenet 1990 Jul 15;47(2):191-6. PMID: 2113426
Mastrangelo MJ, Goepp CE, Patel YA, Clark WH Jr
Arch Dermatol 1979 Jul;115(7):864-5. PMID: 110269

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