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  • Wrong UID 506344
1.

Pfeiffer syndrome

The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
350148
Concept ID:
C1863356
2.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal; however, height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Obesity may occur in childhood or adolescence. IQ scores range from 25 to 79; average IQ is between 36 and 51. Other variable findings are coloboma, cataract, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, and cryptorchidism. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
48517
Concept ID:
C0035934
Disease or Syndrome
3.

Muenke syndrome

Muenke syndrome is defined by the presence of the specific FGFR3 pathogenic variant – c.749C>G – that results in the protein change p.Pro250Arg. Muenke syndrome is characterized by considerable phenotypic variability: features may include coronal synostosis (more often bilateral than unilateral); synostosis of other sutures, all sutures (pan synostosis), or no sutures; or macrocephaly. Bilateral coronal synostosis typically results in brachycephaly (reduced anteroposterior dimension of the skull), although turribrachycephaly (a "tower-shaped" skull) or a cloverleaf skull can be observed. Unilateral coronal synostosis results in anterior plagiocephaly (asymmetry of the skull and face). Other craniofacial findings typically include: temporal bossing; widely spaced eyes, ptosis or proptosis (usually mild); midface retrusion (usually mild); and highly arched palate or cleft lip and palate. Strabismus is common. Other findings can include: hearing loss (in 33%-100% of affected individuals); developmental delay (~33%); epilepsy; intracranial anomalies; intellectual disability; carpal bone and/or tarsal bone fusions; brachydactyly, broad toes, broad thumbs, and/or clinodactyly; and radiographic findings of thimble-like (short and broad) middle phalanges and/or cone-shaped epiphyses. Phenotypic variability is considerable even within the same family. Of note, some individuals who have the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant may have no signs of Muenke syndrome on physical or radiographic examination. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
355217
Concept ID:
C1864436
Disease or Syndrome
4.

Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome

Typical Greig cephalopolysyndactyly syndrome (GCPS) is characterized by preaxial polydactyly or mixed pre- and postaxial polydactyly, true widely spaced eyes, and macrocephaly. Individuals with mild GCPS may have subtle craniofacial findings. The mild end of the GCPS spectrum is a continuum with preaxial polysyndactyly type IV and crossed polydactyly (preaxial polydactyly of the feet and postaxial polydactyly of the hands plus syndactyly of fingers 3-4 and toes 1-3). Individuals with severe GCPS can have seizures, hydrocephalus, and intellectual disability. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
120531
Concept ID:
C0265306
Congenital Abnormality
5.

Jackson-Weiss syndrome

The eight disorders comprising the FGFR-related craniosynostosis spectrum are Pfeiffer syndrome, Apert syndrome, Crouzon syndrome, Beare-Stevenson syndrome, FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis, Jackson-Weiss syndrome, Crouzon syndrome with acanthosis nigricans (AN), and Muenke syndrome (isolated coronal synostosis caused by the p.Pro250Arg pathogenic variant in FGFR3). Muenke syndrome and FGFR2-related isolated coronal synostosis are characterized only by uni- or bicoronal craniosynostosis; the remainder are characterized by bicoronal craniosynostosis or cloverleaf skull, distinctive facial features, and variable hand and foot findings. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
208653
Concept ID:
C0795998
Disease or Syndrome
6.

Multiple sulfatase deficiency

Multiple sulfatase deficiency is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism resulting in tissue accumulation of sulfatides, sulfated glycosaminoglycans, sphingolipids, and steroid sulfates. The enzymatic defect affects the whole family of sulfatase enzymes; thus, the disorder combines features of metachromatic leukodystrophy (250100) and of various mucopolysaccharidoses (see, e.g., MPS6; 253200). Affected individuals show neurologic deterioration with mental retardation, skeletal anomalies, organomegaly, and ichthyosis. Different types of MSD can be distinguished according to the age of onset: neonatal, late infantile (0 to 2 years), and juvenile (2 to 4 years). Neonatal MSD is the most severe form with a broad range of mucopolysaccharidosis-like symptoms and death within the first year of life. Late-infantile MSD, which includes the majority of cases, resembles late-infantile metachromatic leukodystrophy with progressive loss of mental and motor abilities and skeletal changes. There is also an attenuated form of late-infantile MSD with onset beyond the second year of life. Rare cases of juvenile-onset MSD have been reported with onset of symptoms in late childhood and slower progression (Blanco-Aguirre et al., 2001) (summary by Schlotawa et al., 2011). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
75664
Concept ID:
C0268263
Disease or Syndrome
7.

Craniofrontonasal dysplasia

Craniofrontonasal syndrome is an X-linked developmental disorder that shows paradoxically greater severity in heterozygous females than in hemizygous males. Females have frontonasal dysplasia, craniofacial asymmetry, craniosynostosis, bifid nasal tip, grooved nails, wiry hair, and abnormalities of the thoracic skeleton, whereas males typically show only hypertelorism (Twigg et al., 2004; Wieland et al., 2004). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
65095
Concept ID:
C0220767
Disease or Syndrome
8.

Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type II

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
337064
Concept ID:
C1844696
Congenital Abnormality
9.

FG syndrome

The phenotypic spectrum of MED12-related disorders, which is still being defined, includes at a minimum the phenotypes of FG syndrome type 1 (FGS1), Lujan syndrome (LS), and X-linked Ohdo syndrome. FGS1 and LS share the clinical findings of cognitive impairment, hypotonia, and abnormalities of the corpus callosum. FGS1 is further characterized by absolute or relative macrocephaly, tall forehead, downslanted palpebral fissures, small and simple ears, constipation and/or anal anomalies, broad thumbs and halluces, and characteristic behavior. LS is further characterized by large head, tall thin body habitus, long thin face, prominent nasal bridge, high narrow palate, and short philtrum. Carrier females in families with FGS1 and LS are typically unaffected. X-linked Ohdo syndrome (XLOS) is characterized by intellectual disability, blepharophimosis, and facial coarsening. A number of individuals with nonsyndromic intellectual disability – including some affected females – have been described. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
113106
Concept ID:
C0220769
Disease or Syndrome
10.

Oto-palato-digital syndrome, type I

The otopalatodigital (OPD) spectrum disorders, characterized primarily by skeletal dysplasia, include the following: Otopalatodigital syndrome type I (OPD1). Otopalatodigital syndrome type II (OPD2). Frontometaphyseal dysplasia (FMD). Melnick-Needles syndrome (MNS). Terminal osseous dysplasia with pigmentary skin defects (TODPD). In OPD1, most manifestations are present at birth; females can present with severity similar to affected males, although some have only mild manifestations. In OPD2, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Most males with OPD2 die during the first year of life, usually from thoracic hypoplasia resulting in pulmonary insufficiency. Males who live beyond the first year of life are usually developmentally delayed and require respiratory support and assistance with feeding. In FMD, females are less severely affected than related affected males. Males do not experience progression of skeletal dysplasia but may have joint contractures and hand and foot malformations. Progressive scoliosis is observed in both affected males and females. In MNS, wide phenotypic variability is observed; some individuals are diagnosed in adulthood, while others require respiratory support and have reduced longevity. Prenatal lethality is most common in males with MNS. TODPD is a female limited condition, characterized by terminal skeletal dysplasia, pigmentary defects of the skin, and recurrent digital fibromata. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
78542
Concept ID:
C0265251
Disease or Syndrome
11.

Levy-Hollister syndrome

Lacrimoauriculodentodigital syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly disorder mainly affecting lacrimal glands and ducts, salivary glands and ducts, ears, teeth, and distal limb segments (summary by Rohmann et al., 2006). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
78545
Concept ID:
C0265269
Disease or Syndrome
12.

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome 2

Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is characterized by distinctive facial features, broad and often angulated thumbs and great toes, short stature, and moderate to severe intellectual disability. The characteristic craniofacial features are downslanted palpebral fissures, low hanging columella, high palate, grimacing smile, and talon cusps. Prenatal growth is often normal; however, height, weight, and head circumference percentiles rapidly drop in the first few months of life. Obesity may occur in childhood or adolescence. IQ scores range from 25 to 79; average IQ is between 36 and 51. Other variable findings are coloboma, cataract, congenital heart defects, renal abnormalities, and cryptorchidism. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
462291
Concept ID:
C3150941
Disease or Syndrome
13.

Nager syndrome

Nager syndrome is the prototype for a group of disorders collectively referred to as the acrofacial dysostoses (AFDs), which are characterized by malformation of the craniofacial skeleton and the limbs. The major facial features of Nager syndrome include downslanted palpebral fissures, midface retrusion, and micrognathia, the latter of which often requires the placement of a tracheostomy in early childhood. Limb defects typically involve the anterior (radial) elements of the upper limbs and manifest as small or absent thumbs, triphalangeal thumbs, radial hypoplasia or aplasia, and radioulnar synostosis. Phocomelia of the upper limbs and, occasionally, lower-limb defects have also been reported. The presence of anterior upper-limb defects and the typical lack of lower-limb involvement distinguishes Nager syndrome from Miller syndrome (263750), another rare AFD; however, distinguishing Nager syndrome from other AFDs, including Miller syndrome, can be challenging (summary by Bernier et al., 2012). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
120519
Concept ID:
C0265245
Disease or Syndrome
14.

Hypertrichotic osteochondrodysplasia

Cantú syndrome and the related disorders acromegaloid facial appearance (AFA) and hypertrichosis and acromegaloid facial features (HAFF) are characterized by congenital hypertrichosis; distinctive coarse facial features (including broad nasal bridge, wide mouth with full lips and macroglossia); enlarged heart (increased ventricular mass, enlarged chambers, and normal cardiac function); and skeletal abnormalities (thickening of the calvaria, broad ribs, scoliosis, and flaring of the metaphyses). Other cardiovascular abnormalities may include patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (in 50%), pericardial effusion (20%), and increased vascular tortuosity. Intellect is typically normal; behavioral problems can include anxiety, mood swings, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and tics. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
208647
Concept ID:
C0795905
Disease or Syndrome
15.

Split-hand/foot malformation 1

Split-hand/foot malformation (SHFM) is a limb malformation involving the central rays of the autopod and presenting with syndactyly, median clefts of the hands and feet, and aplasia and/or hypoplasia of the phalanges, metacarpals, and metatarsals. Some patients with SHFM1 have been found to have mental retardation, ectodermal and craniofacial findings, orofacial clefting (Elliott and Evans, 2006), and neurosensory hearing loss (Tackels-Horne et al., 2001). Genetic Heterogeneity of Split-Hand/Foot Malformation Additional SHFM loci include SHFM2 (313350) on chromosome Xq26; SHFM3 (246560), caused by duplication of chromosome 10q24; SHFM4 (605289), caused by mutation in the TP63 gene (603273) on chromosome 3q27; SHFM5 (606708) on chromosome 2q31; and SHFM6 (225300), caused by mutation in the WNT10B gene (601906) on chromosome 12q13. Also see SHFM1D (220600) for a form of SHFM1 with deafness that may be caused by homozygous mutation in the DLX5 gene (600028). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
419314
Concept ID:
C2931019
Disease or Syndrome
16.

1q21.1 recurrent microdeletion

1q21.1 microdeletion is a chromosomal change in which a small piece of chromosome 1 is deleted in each cell. The deletion occurs on the long (q) arm of the chromosome in a region designated q21.1. This chromosomal change increases the risk of delayed development, intellectual disability, physical abnormalities, and neurological and psychiatric problems. However, some people with a 1q21.1 microdeletion do not appear to have any associated features.About 75 percent of all children with a 1q21.1 microdeletion have delayed development, particularly affecting the development of motor skills such as sitting, standing, and walking. The intellectual disability and learning problems associated with this genetic change are usually mild.Distinctive facial features can also be associated with 1q21.1 microdeletions. The changes are usually subtle and can include a prominent forehead; a large, rounded nasal tip; a long space between the nose and upper lip (philtrum); and a high, arched roof of the mouth (palate). Other common signs and symptoms of 1q21.1 microdeletions include an unusually small head (microcephaly), short stature, and eye problems such as clouding of the lenses (cataracts). Less frequently, 1q21.1 microdeletions are associated with heart defects, abnormalities of the genitalia or urinary system, bone abnormalities (particularly in the hands and feet), and hearing loss.Neurological problems that have been reported in people with a 1q21.1 microdeletion include seizures and weak muscle tone (hypotonia). Psychiatric or behavioral problems affect a small percentage of people with this genetic change. These include developmental conditions called autism spectrum disorders that affect communication and social interaction, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and sleep disturbances. Studies suggest that deletions of genetic material from the 1q21.1 region may also be risk factors for schizophrenia.Some people with a 1q21.1 microdeletion do not have any of the intellectual, physical, or psychiatric features described above. In these individuals, the microdeletion is often detected when they undergo genetic testing because they have a relative with the chromosomal change. It is unknown why 1q21.1 microdeletions cause cognitive and physical changes in some individuals but few or no health problems in others, even within the same family. [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
393913
Concept ID:
C2675897
Congenital Abnormality
17.

Brachydactyly type A2

Brachydactyly type A2 is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by malformations of the middle phalanx of the index finger and by anomalies of the second toe (summary by Su et al., 2011). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
318690
Concept ID:
C1832702
Congenital Abnormality
18.

Microcephaly autosomal dominant

Microcephaly strictly means abnormally small head size, but usually refers to an occipitofrontal head circumference below -2 SD from the mean for the infant's gestational age, sex, and ethnic origin. Microcephaly may appear as an isolated trait or in association with other malformations. It may also be sporadic or familial. Some familial cases are autosomal dominant, but most appear to be recessive (see 251200) (summary by Merlob et al., 1988). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
66319
Concept ID:
C0220693
Disease or Syndrome
19.

Syndromic mental retardation, Nascimento type, X-linked

The Nascimento type of X-linked syndromic mental retardation is characterized by dysmorphic features, including large head, synophrys, prominent supraorbital ridges, almond-shaped and deep-set eyes, large ears, wide mouth, myxedematous appearance, hirsutism, abnormal hair whorls, micropenis, and onychodystrophy. Female carriers have normal cognition, but may show subtle facial features (summary by Budny et al., 2010). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
477095
Concept ID:
C3275464
Disease or Syndrome
20.

Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome 2

Hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome-2 is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by moderately to severely delayed psychomotor development, facial dysmorphism, brachytelephalangy, and increased serum alkaline phosphatase (hyperphosphatasia). Some patients may have additional features, such as cardiac septal defects or seizures (summary by Krawitz et al., 2012). The disorder is caused by a defect in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) biosynthesis. For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of hyperphosphatasia with mental retardation syndrome, see HPMRS1 (239300). For a discussion of genetic heterogeneity of GPI biosynthesis defects, see GPIBD1 (610293). [from GTR]

MedGen UID:
766551
Concept ID:
C3553637
Disease or Syndrome
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